At a Glance

Election Returns Scope
    Additional Notes on Database
Sources
Definitions
    Party Abbreviations



At a Glance

The CQ Voting and Elections Collection from CQ Press (an imprint of SAGE Publications) integrates a wealth of documents and data about voting and elections in America. It includes the following large groups of information:

  • Election returns for president, governor, and U.S. Congress (Senate and House) at the county and state levels-see Election Returns Scope below for details. (Primarily from the America Votes book series and America at the Polls)

  • Congressional biographies (from CQ's Politics in America; each bio is written at the beginning of the last congressional term in which the has individual served; older biographies from the Biographical Directory of the American Congress 1774-1996).

  • Presidential biographies (from Guide to the Presidency).

  • The entire Elections A to Z encyclopedia.

  • U.S. Congressional district profiles from 1980 to present (from CQ's Politics in America). Also, county census data from the 1990 and 2000 censuses.

  • U.S. Congressional district maps (state-by-state) from the 1960s to the present in PDF form--dynamic maps from 1998 to present.

  • Congressional election analysis from 1946 to 2012 (from Guide to U.S. Elections as well as The Elections of 2012 and the Congress and the Nation quadriennial series).

  • Recent election analysis from the Rhodes Cook Letter, a new feature adding fresh content every other month.


Election Returns Scope

The Voting and Elections Collection contains a central database as well as individual data tables of various information (anything from census data to convention ballots). The individual data tables can be accessed via the general search or Browse Topics. The central database, on the other hand, is a repository of elections for president, governor, and U.S. Congress (Senate and House) at the county and state levels. The following table gives the years and geographies included in the Voting and Election Collection for each office and election type. These data can be accessed via the Election Results search and Browse Topics as well as through the various tools of Compare Data. See the Sources section below for more detail on the source of these data.


 

Office

Election Type

Years

Smallest Geography

Notes

President General 1789 to 2014 State level Electoral Votes
President General 1824 to 2014 State level Popular Vote
President General 1920 to 2014 County level Popular Vote
President Primary 1912 to 2014 State level Included in document for all primaries for year within state.
Governor General 1824 to 2014 State level
Governor General 1968 to 2014 County level
Governor Primary 1919 to 2014 State level Included in document for all primaries for year within state.
House General 1824 to 2014 Congressional district Districts change over time.* Totals include only "major candidates" who garnered 5% or more of vote until 1968.
House Primary 1994 to 2014 Congressional district Included in document for all primaries for year within state.
Senate General 1908 to 2014 State level
Senate General 1968 to 2014 County level
Senate Primary 1960 to 2014 State level Included in document for all primaries for year within state.

Additional Notes on Database

* Data for a state's congressional districts may not be comparable from election to election, within these tables, because of reapportionment and redistricting. (Redistricting dates are included for the 1960s to present.)

Dates: The earliest House tables are designated "1822-1830" even though the earliest data included are from 1824.

Table Structure: Tables providing gubernatorial, House, and Senate data up to and slightly beyond the founding of the Republican party in 1854 will be structured and organized according to the number of votes received (e.g., "Greatest Number of Votes," "Second Greatest Number of Votes").

Tables providing gubernatorial, House, and Senate data after the founding of the Republican party in 1854 will be structured and organized according to "Republican," "Democratic," "Other", and any significant third party or "Highest Other" (if present).

Use of Democratic/Republican: When the Collection includes more than one Democratic candidate or more than one Republican candidate running in a specific district race, "Democratic" and "Republican" data, and any calculations based on the data, will include those multiple candidates.

Open Primaries: For the purposes of the Collection, an "open" primary refers to a primary open to candidates and voters of all parties. The top two vote-getters from the open primary proceed to a runoff election, except in some cases in Louisiana (see below). This usage differs from the oft-heard description of an open primary as allowing voters of all parties, but candidates from only one party.

Since 1975, Louisiana has used a unique two-tier election system for House, Senate, and governor. Its use was suspended in for the 2008 and 2010 elections, but reinstated for the 2011 and 2012 elections. A "jungle primary" is held for all candidates of any party, and any candidate that receives 50% of the vote is elected to office. If no candidate receives 50% of the vote, the top two vote-getters enter a runoff election for office. Any "jungle primary" in which a candidate was elected is treated in this Collection as a general election, because it was a decisive election. Any "jungle primary" that was not decisive is treated as a open primary for the purposes of the Collection, and the runoff election is then treated as a general election.

Contact Info: Because elections data are complex, definitions and information are provided below on how the Collection may use or interpret data. CQ Press makes every attempt to verify and revise data as necessary, but inevitably, a work of this size and complexity may contain some errors and omissions. Please send any comments or suggestions regarding the data in this Collection to onlinesupportus@sagepub.com.


Sources

The Collection draws on a number of authoritative CQ Press sources for elections data.  Data have been adapted from these CQ Press sources: 

  • America Votes biennial series

  • America at the Polls series

  • Politics in America biennial series (district vote for president only)

  • Guide to U.S. Elections, fourth through sixth editions

For other elections-related data and visuals, available through the search and browse under "Facts & Figures", the Collection draws upon:

  • America Votes biennial series (e.g., party switches).

  • American Political Leaders, 1789-2009 (e.g., lists of governors)

  • Guide to U.S. Elections, fourth through sixth editions (e.g., Whig convention ballots)

  • U.S. Census Bureau

  • Vital Statistics on American Politics biennial series (e.g., partisan identification)

It also draws on elections-related selections from a number of authoritative CQ Press reference works for elections analysis, primary sources, and other election-related information. These include:

  • Congress A to Z

  • Congressional Districts in the 1980s, Congressional Districts in the 1990s, and Congressional Districts in the 2000s

  • CQ's Politics in America biennial series (congressional biographies and district profiles)

  • CQ Researcher reports

  • Elections A to Z second through fourth editions

  • Guide to Congress seventh edition

  • Guide to Political Campaigns in America

  • Guide to the Presidency fourth and fifth editions

  • Guide to the U.S. Supreme Court fourth edition

  • Historical Documents annual series

  • Historic Documents on Presidential Elections 1787-1988

  • Presidency A to Z fourth edition

The America Votes series, covering presidential, gubernatorial, House, and Senate general elections and primaries every election cycle, was first created by Richard M. Scammon and Alice V. McGillivray of the Elections Research Center, Washington, D.C., in 1956. Since 1996 the series has been edited and compiled by Rhodes Cook. The series includes the following:

  • Scammon, Richard M., and the Governmental Affairs Institute. America Votes 8. Washington: CQ Press, 1970.

  • Scammon, Richard M., and the Governmental Affairs Institute. America Votes 9. Washington: CQ Press, 1972.

  • Scammon, Richard M., and the Governmental Affairs Institute. America Votes 10. Washington: CQ Press, 1973.

  • Scammon, Richard M., and the Elections Research Center. America Votes 11. Washington: CQ Press, 1975.

  • Scammon, Richard M., Alice V. McGillivray, and the Elections Research Center. America Votes 12. Washington: CQ Press, 1977.

  • Scammon, Richard M., Alice V. McGillivray, and the Elections Research Center. America Votes 13. Washington: CQ Press, 1979.

  • Scammon, Richard M., Alice V. McGillivray, and the Elections Research Center. America Votes 14. Washington: CQ Press, 1981.

  • Scammon, Richard M., Alice V. McGillivray, and the Elections Research Center. America Votes 15. Washington: CQ Press, 1983.

  • Scammon, Richard M., Alice V. McGillivray, and the Elections Research Center. America Votes 16. Washington: CQ Press, 1985.

  • Scammon, Richard M., Alice V. McGillivray, and the Elections Research Center. America Votes 17. Washington: CQ Press, 1987.

  • Scammon, Richard M., Alice V. McGillivray, and the Elections Research Center. America Votes 18. Washington: CQ Press, 1989.

  • Scammon, Richard M., Alice V. McGillivray, and the Elections Research Center. America Votes 19. Washington: CQ Press, 1991.

  • Scammon, Richard M., Alice V. McGillivray, and the Elections Research Center. America Votes 20. Washington: CQ Press, 1993.

  • Scammon, Richard M., Alice V. McGillivray, and the Elections Research Center. America Votes 21. Washington: CQ Press, 1995.

  • Scammon, Richard M., Alice V. McGillivray, and Rhodes Cook. America Votes 22. Washington: CQ Press, 1998.

  • Scammon, Richard M., Alice V. McGillivray, and Rhodes Cook. America Votes 23. Washington: CQ Press, 1999.

  • Scammon, Richard M., Alice V. McGillivray, and Rhodes Cook. America Votes 24. Washington: CQ Press, 2001.

  • Scammon, Richard M., Alice V. McGillivray, and Rhodes Cook. America Votes 25. Washington: CQ Press, 2003.

  • Scammon, Richard M., Alice V. McGillivray, and Rhodes Cook. America Votes 26: 2003-2004. Washington: CQ Press, 2006.

  • Scammon, Richard M., Alice V. McGillivray, and Rhodes Cook. America Votes 27: 2005-2006. Washington: CQ Press, 2008.

  • Scammon, Richard M., Alice V. McGillivray, and Rhodes Cook. America Votes 28: 2007-2008. Washington: CQ Press, 2010.

  • Rhodes Cook. America Votes 29: 2009-2010. Washington: CQ Press, 2012.

  • Rhodes Cook. America Votes 30: 2011-2012. Washington: CQ Press, 2014.

  • Rhodes Cook. America Votes 31: 2013-2014. Washington: CQ Press, 2016.

The data in this series are compiled from final, official results obtained from election authorities in each state. On occasion, states may belatedly report vote total changes that occur after publication of the volumes. The editors and CQ Press have made every attempt to incorporate changes and corrections in the data. Where possible, footnotes and notes regarding specific elections or vote totals have been retained in this Collection or integrated into the data.

The America at the Polls series, covering presidential general elections and primaries since 1920, includes the following:

  • McGillivray, Alice V., and Richard M. Scammon. America at the Polls 1920 to 1956: Harding to Eisenhower. Washington: CQ Press, 1994.

  • McGillivray, Alice V., Richard M. Scammon, and Rhodes Cook. America at the Polls 1960 to 2000: John F. Kennedy to George W. Bush. Washington: CQ Press, 2001.

The data in this series are from the official state canvass reports. For a few of the early elections in the 1920 to 1956 volume, these reports were supplemented and interpreted by reference to additional sources, such as the reports of the Clerk of the House of Representatives, files in the National Archives, and various state almanacs.  The editors and CQ Press have made every attempt to incorporate changes and corrections in the data.  Where possible, any exceptions or special notes concerning these data have been retained in this Collection or integrated into the data.

The Politics in America series, published biennially, provides the district vote for president for the years 1972 to 1996. (Missing from this Collection are data for California and Texas in 1972 and Ohio in 1984.) It also provides district profiles and congressional biographies. The series includes the following:

  • Ehrenhalt, Alan, ed. Politics in America 1982: Members of Congress in Washington and at Home. Washington: CQ Press, 1981.

  • CQ's Political Staff and Phil Duncan, eds. Politics in America 1992: The 102nd Congress. Washington: CQ Press, 1991.

  • CQ's Political Staff and Phil Duncan, eds. Politics in America 1994: The 103rd Congress. Washington: CQ Press, 1993.

  • Duncan, Phil D., and Christine C. Lawrence with CQ's Political Staff. Politics in America 1998: The 105th Congress. Washington: CQ Press, 1997.

  • Duncan, Phil D., and Brian Nutting with CQ Press. Politics in America 2000: The 106th Congress. Washington: CQ Press, 1999.

  • Nutting, Brian and H. Amy Stern. Politics in America 2002: The 107th Congress. Washington: CQ Press, 2001.

  • Hawkings, David and Brian Nutting. Politics in America 2004: The 108th Congress. Washington: CQ Press, 2003.

  • Koszczuk, Jackie and H. Amy Stern. Politics in America 2006: The 109th Congress. Washington: CQ Press, 2005.

  • Angle, Martha and Jackie Koszczuk. Politics in America 2008: The 110th Congress. Washington: Congressional Quarterly, 2007.

  • McCutcheon, Chuck and Christy L. Lyons. Politics in America 2010: The 111th Congress. Washington: Congressional Quarterly, 2009.

  • Bicknell, John and David Meyers. Politics in America 2012: The 112th Congress. Washington: CQ-Roll Call, Inc., 2011.

  • CQ-Roll Call. Politics in America 2014: The 113th Congress. Washington: CQ-Roll Call, Inc., 2011.

The district vote for president was based on votes for the major candidates; the independent vote was included only if the candidate received at least 2 percent of the vote in the district. For this and other reasons, including variances in the tabulation of absentee ballots, district-level data rolled up to a state total may not correlate with county-level data rolled up to a state total.

Congressional Quarterly calculated district-level votes for president using official results supplied by the secretaries of state, boards of elections, and other state and county election agencies. For the selected counties in Arizona, Indiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and New Jersey in 1988, results came from the Republican National Committee, whose figures were taken directly from worksheets compiled by county officials. For 1992 and 1996, Polidata of Lake Ridge, Va., provided data, with the assistance of Congressional Quarterly.

Guide to U.S. Elections provides a wealth of data on presidential, gubernatorial, House, and Senate general elections and primaries, in addition to other information and analysis. The most recent edition of the Guide is as follows:

  • CQ Press. Guide to U.S. Elections, sixth edition. Washington: CQ Press, 2010.

The Collection drew on data from the Guide for the years prior to 1968 for gubernatorial, House, and Senate elections and for the years prior to 1920 for presidential elections. The Guide's major source for the data for these time periods was the Inter-University Consortium for Politics and Social Research (ICPSR) at the University of Michigan. Where the ICPSR collection includes all Senate, House, and gubernatorial candidates receiving popular votes, the Guide and the Collection include only those Senate, House, and gubernatorial candidates receiving at least 5 percent of the total vote for that election. In such cases, tables in the Collection will use the terms "Major Candidate Total Vote" and "Major Candidate Total Vote %," along with a further note. While the complete source annotations for the ICPSR data were too extensive to publish in the Guide, information on the sources for specific election returns can be obtained through the ICPSR. At times, the Guide drew on sources other than the ICPSR for the data for these time periods; where possible, such sources are noted in this essay or in footnotes within the Collection.

Presidential Popular Vote Returns from the Guide

In addition to the ICPSR, as noted above, elections historian Michael J. Dubin supplemented this source material with new elections data research. CQ editors felt the new data was of scholarly merit and worthy of inclusion—much of it filling the gaps or correcting errors in previous editions of the Guide. Where possible, Dubin's original sources are also listed in the footnotes.

The 1824 starting date for the ICPSR collection was based on factors such as the pronounced trend by 1824 for the election of presidential electors by popular vote, as well as the availability, accessibility, and quality of the returns. The omission of popular vote returns for a state after 1824 indicates an absence of popular voting for that election. The South Carolina legislature, for example, chose the state's presidential electors until 1860, and the state did not participate in the 1864 presidential election because of the Civil War. Thus, the first popular vote returns shown for South Carolina are for the 1868 election.

In many cases presidential candidates appeared on state ballots under different, even multiple party designations. To provide one party designation for presidential candidates for the elections 1824 through 1916, CQ Press has aggregated under a single party designation the votes of candidates who are listed in the ICPSR data as receiving votes under more than one party designation.

Electoral Votes for President from the Guide

The sources for electoral votes cast for presidential candidates are the Senate Manual (Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997), and CQ Weekly Report.

Article II, Section 1 of the Constitution gives a state a number of electors equal to the number of senators and representatives to which it is entitled.  Total electoral votes for each state through the 2000 election were compiled from a chart of each apportionment of the House of Representatives, published in Kenneth C. Martis and Gregory A. Elmes, The Historical Atlas of State Power in Congress, 1790-1990 (Washington, D.C., CQ Press, 1993), pp. 6-7.

Under the Constitution (Article II, Section 1) each presidential elector was originally given two votes and was required to cast each vote for a different person.  The person receiving the highest number of votes from a majority of electors was elected president; the person receiving the second highest total became vice president. For the first presidential election in 1789, there were 69 electors, and Washington's 69 votes constituted a unanimous election. After ratification of the Twelfth Amendment in 1804, electors were required to designate which of their two votes was for president and which was for vice president. 

Gubernatorial General Election Returns from the Guide

Where the ICPSR collection includes all gubernatorial candidates receiving popular votes, the Guide and the Collection include only those gubernatorial candidates receiving at least 5 percent of the total vote for that election. In such cases, tables in the Collection will use the terms "Major Candidate Total Vote" and "Major Candidate Total Vote %," along with a further note explaining this circumstance.

Names are listed as they were recorded in the official returns or other source documentation. In some instances, particularly in the nineteenth century, candidate names in the ICPSR file are incomplete. First names were the most commonly missing elements in the original sources consulted by the scholars and archivists who gathered the ICPSR returns. CQ Press has added full names when they could be determined and has corrected obvious misspellings.

In the ICPSR returns, the Guide, and this Collection, the distinct—and in many cases, multiple—party designations appearing in the original sources are preserved. In many cases party labels represent combinations of multiparty support received by individual candidates. If, for example, on the ballot and official returns more than one party name was listed next to a candidate's name, then the party designation appearing in the election returns for that candidate will be a unique abbreviation for that combination of parties. (See "Party Abbreviations") In the special case of a candidate's name listed separately on the original ballot under more than one party—where returns were reported separately for each party—CQ Press and the Collection follow the America Votes series methodology by including the candidate and candidate's total vote with the single party that contributed the largest share of the candidate's total vote. Most cases of this special situation occurred in New York and Pennsylvania during the twentieth century. 

House General Election Returns from the Guide

Where the ICPSR collection includes all House candidates receiving popular votes, the Guide and the Collection include only those House candidates from single-member districts who received at least 5 percent of the total vote for that election.(In multimember districts or at-large districts electing more than one representative, candidates who received fewer than 100 votes were not listed.) In such cases, tables in the Collection will use the terms "Major Candidate Total Vote" and "Major Candidate Total Vote %," along with a further note explaining this circumstance.

If no vote total is shown for a candidate but the percentage listed is 100 percent, in most cases the candidate ran unopposed. State election officials either did not put the candidate's name on the ballot or simply did not make an effort to record the total number of votes.

Note on Multimember Districts: During part of the nineteenth century, five New England states—Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont—had state laws requiring that candidates win election to the House by a popular vote majority. The specific procedures varied among the five states. The majority vote requirement was last used in 1892 Rhode Island.

In some instances, particularly in the nineteenth century, names in the ICPSR file are incomplete. First names were the element most commonly missing in the original sources consulted by the scholars and archivists who gathered the ICPSR returns.

In the ICPSR returns, the distinct—and in many cases, multiple—party designations appearing in the original sources are preserved. In many cases party labels represent combinations of multiparty support received by individual candidates. If, for example, on the ballot and official returns more than one party name was listed next to a candidate's name, then the party designation appearing in the election returns for that candidate will be a unique abbreviation for that combination of parties. (See "Party Abbreviations") In the special case of a candidate's name listed separately on the original ballot under more than one party—where returns were reported separately for each party— CQ Press and the Collection follow the America Votes series methodology by including the candidate and candidate's total vote with the single party that contributed the largest share of the candidate's total vote. Most cases of this special situation occurred in New York and Pennsylvania during the twentieth century.

Senate General Election Returns from the Guide

Where the ICPSR collection includes all Senate candidates receiving popular votes, the Guide and the Collection include only those Senate candidates receiving at least 5 percent of the total vote for that election. In such cases, tables in the Collection will use the terms "Major Candidate Total Vote" and "Major Candidate Total Vote %," along with a further note explaining this circumstance.

Prior to ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment, April 8, 1913, a number of states conducted nonbinding popular polls for Senate candidates, designed to guide the state legislatures in choosing between candidates. The ICPSR obtained some of the returns for these polls, and they are included in this Collection. 

In the ICPSR returns, the distinct—and in many cases, multiple—party designations appearing in the original sources are preserved. In many cases party labels represent combinations of multiparty support received by individual candidates. If, for example, on the ballot and official returns more than one party name was listed next to a candidate's name, then the party designation appearing in the election returns for that candidate will be a unique abbreviation for that combination of parties. (See "Party Abbreviations") In the special case of a candidate's name listed separately on the original ballot under more than one party—where returns were reported separately for each party—CQ Press and the Collection follow the America Votes series methodology by including the candidate and candidate's total vote with the single party that contributed the largest share of the candidate's total vote. Most cases of this special situation occurred in New York and Pennsylvania during the twentieth century. 

Other Sources

The most frequently used alternative source was Statistics of the Congressional Elections of ____ , published by the Clerk of the House of Representatives for every general election year since 1920.

Alabama 1938: Statistics of the Congressional Election of Nov. 8. 1938. Arkansas 1924: Statistics of the Congressional and Presidential Election of Nov. 4, 1924. 1914/1916 World Almanac, published by the New York World newspaper. 1932 special election: Alexander Heard and Donald S. Strong, Southern Primaries and Elections, 1920-1949, p. 31. Colorado 1944: Statistics of the Congressional and Presidential Election of Nov. 7, 1944. Connecticut 1924 special election: Statistics of the Congressional Election of Nov. 4, 1924. Georgia 1924: Statistics of the Congressional and Presidential Election of Nov. 4, 1924. Kentucky 1950 special election: Statistics of the Congressional Election of Nov. 7, 1950. Louisiana 1936 special election: Louisiana secretary of state. 1920: Statistics of the Congressional and Presidential Election of Nov. 2, 1920. Maine 1952: Statistics of the Congressional and Presidential Election of Nov. 4, 1952. Maryland 1913 special election: Maryland secretary of state. 1940: Statistics of the Congressional and Presidential Election of Nov. 5, 1940. 1946: Statistics of the Congressional Election of Nov. 5, 1946. Minnesota 1923 special election: 1924 World Almanac, published by the New York World newspaper. North Carolina 1948 special election: Statistics of the Congressional and Presidential Election of Nov. 2, 1948. Ohio 1930 special election: Statistics of the Congressional Election of Nov. 4, 1930. Pennsylvania 1922 special election: Statistics of the Congressional Election of Nov. 7, 1922. Texas 1961 special primary: Richard M. Scammon, ed., America Votes 5 (Pittsburgh, 1964), p. 401. Vermont 1931 special election: Vermont secretary of state. 1934 special election: Vermont secretary of state. Virginia 1920 special election: Statistics of the Congressional and Presidential Election of Nov. 2, 1920. Wisconsin 1918 special election: Seward W. Livermore, Politics Is Adjourned: Woodrow Wilson and the War Congress (Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 1966), p. 271. Wyoming 1930 special election: Statistics of the Congressional Election of Nov. 4, 1930.


Definitions

The following definitions explain the terms most commonly used in the election return tables and dynamically generated data.  (For other definitions, browse the Encyclopedia on the left-hand navigation bar or search in the Collection.)

Challenger: A candidate not currently holding the office he or she is seeking to win. A race with no incumbents will have two challengers.
 
Decisive Race or Election: Any race or election that results in the final officeholder.
 
Democratic Usually provides data on the top Democratic candidate in a specific race or election. Where a state allows multiple Democratic or multiple Republican candidates to run in a specific race, tables that summarize House elections for a year ("House General Elections, All States, [year] Summary"), "Office Histories" and "Split District Outcomes" on the left-hand navigation bar will use "Democratic" to include those multiple Democratic candidates and will base percentages and other calculations on those multiple candidates.
 
Greatest Number of Votes Special term used to provide and organize data on significant candidates in elections up to and slightly beyond the founding of the Republican party in 1854. Provides information on significant candidates according to number of votes received, along with "Second," "Third," and "Fourth Greatest Number of Votes," as necessary.
 
Highest Other: Term used to provide data on a significant additional candidate who is neither the top Democratic nor the top Republican candidate in a race or election. In the most recent elections, Highest Other is included more often.
 
Incumbent: A candidate currently holding the office he or she is seeking to retain in a race or election. An incumbent race is a race that includes at least one candidate for re-election. In certain circumstances, such as when two House members have been redistricted into the same new district, it is possible for two incumbents to be shown for that race.
 
Major Candidate Total Vote:

Special term used along with "Major Candidate Total Vote %" in tables that provide data on candidates who received 5% or more of the total votes cast in a race or election. "Major Candidate Total Vote" accurately reflects the candidates and votes as included in the table, but may not accurately reflect the full and official "Total Vote," which would include any candidates who received less than 5% of the total vote as well as other scattered votes. Used in House elections prior to 1968; gubernatorial elections prior to 1968, and primary elections prior to 1993.

 
Major Candidate Total Vote %:

Special term used along with "Major Candidate Total Vote" in tables that provide data on candidates who received 5% or more of the total votes cast in a race or election. "Major Candidate Total Vote %" accurately reflects the percentage of the vote that a candidate received as included in the table, but may not accurately reflect the full and official "Total Vote (%)," which would include in the calculation any candidates who received less than 5% of the total vote as well as other scattered votes. Used in House elections prior to 1968; gubernatorial elections prior to 1968, and primary elections prior to 1993.

 
Major Party Vote (%):

A measure using only those votes cast for the Democratic and Republican candidates within a race or election. Usually expresses the top Democratic candidate's vote and the top Republican candidate's vote as percentages of the combined votes cast for those candidates in that race or election. The two columns under "Major Party Vote (%)" should always equal 100%. (See "Democratic" and "Republican" definitions above and below for special circumstances.)

 
Open Primary: For the purposes of the Collection, an "Open" primary is a primary that includes candidates of all parties-Louisiana and Washington are two states that use "open" primaries. This usage differs from the oft-heard description of an open primary as allowing voters of all parties, but candidates from only one party. Louisiana has a unique version of an open primary; see the Additional Notes under the Elections Data Scope section for more details.
Open Seat: An election or race with no incumbent candidate.
 
Other: Usually an aggregate of additional votes cast not otherwise captured in the table. (See "Democrat" and "Republican" definitions above and below for special circumstances)
 
Plurality: The number of votes separating the candidate with the highest vote from the candidate with the second highest vote. Also gives the party designation of the candidate with the highest vote. Only includes those candidates listed in the table-candidates lumped into "Other" (as opposed to "Highest Other") are not used for plurality.
 
Republican: Usually provides data on the top Republican candidate in a specific race or election. Where a state allows multiple Republican to run in a specific race, summaries of the "Republican" total votes will include the votes for all of those multiple candidates. These include tables that summarize House elections for a year ("House General Elections, All States, [year] Summary"). They also include the Compare Data tools "Vote counts by office, party, and area" and "Split District".
 
Special Election: A race or election held outside the normal election cycle, to address special circumstances, such as the death or resignation of an officeholder or a recall of a particular elected official.
 
Total Vote: All votes cast for all candidates in a race or election, as well as write-in votes if they are tabulated.
 
Total Vote (%):

Usually an individual candidate's vote expressed as a percentage of all votes cast for all candidates, including write-in votes if they are tabulated, in that race or election.  When calculated for "Other," the percentage is based on all votes that may be aggregated in "Other." (See "Democratic" and "Republican" definitions above for additional special circumstances.)

Party Abbreviations

The following list is alphabetical, but also includes the most common parties at the top. The list will be updated as new "other" parties are added.

 

Party Name

Abbreviation

Initial

Democrat D D
Republican R R
Write-in WRITE-IN WR
21st Century TFC TFC
A Connecticut Party ACP ACP
Abolition AB ABL
Abolition-Democrat AB-D AD
Adams Democrat AD ADD
Adams Republican AR ADP
Addicks Republican AK R AR
Alaskan Independent ALI ALI
Alliance ALNC ALL
Alliance Democrat ALNC D ALD
Aloha Democrat Primary A-D A-D
American AM A
American and Republican AM & R AMR
American Grassroots AG AG
American Independent Party AIP AIP
American Labor AM LAB AL
American National AM NAT NAT
Anti-Adams A-A AA
Anti-Addicks Republican A-AK R AAR
Anti-Bank A-BANK AB
Anti-Benton Democrat A-BEN D ABD
Anti-Boss A-BOSS ABS
Anti-Broderick Democrat A-BROD D ABR
Anti-Clinton ANTI-CLINT ATC
Anti-Democrat-Fusion A-D-FUS ADF
Anti-Federalist ANTI-FED AFD
Anti-Jackson A-JAC
Anti-Jackson Democrat A-JAC D AJD
Anti-Know Nothing Democrat A-KN D AKD
Anti-Know Nothing Independent A-KN I AKI
Anti-Know Nothing Independent Democrat A-KN ID AID
Anti-Land Distribution Democrat A-LD D ALN
Anti-Lecompton Democrat A-LEC D ALE
Anti-Lottery Democrat A-LOT D ATD
Anti-Machine A-MACH AM
Anti-Maine Law A-MAINE AML
Anti-Mason A-MAS AMS
Anti-Masonci A-MASC AMC
Anti-Mason-Democrat-National Republican A-MASDNR AMN
Anti-Monopoly A-MONOP AMO
Anti-Monopoly Democrat A-MON D AMD
Anti-Nebraska A-NEB ANE
Anti-Nebraska Democrat A-NEB D AED
Anti-Redemption Democrat A-RPT D ARD
Anti-Rent A-RENT ART
Anti-Tammany A-TAM ATM
Anti-Tariff A-TARIFF ATF
Anti-Tax A-TAX ATX
Anti-Trust A-TRUST AT
Anti-Van Buren Democrat A VB D  
Anti-Wolf Democrat A-WOLF D AWD
Apollo Hall APOLLO AH
Barnburner Democrat BARN D BB
Benton BENTON B
Benton Democrat BENTON D BD
Best Party Best Party BSP
Black and Tan Republican B & T R BTR
Bolting Democrat BOLT D BTD
Breckinridge Democrat BRECK D BGD
Brindle-Tail Republican B-T R BRR
Broderick Democrat BROD D BRD
Bryan Party BRYAN BRY
Bucktail Republican BUCK R BKR
Bull Moose B MOOSE BM
Butler Democrat and Greenback BUT D & R BDG
Butler Democrat and National BUT D & N BDN
Butler Republican BUT R BR
Butter Congressional BC BC
Calhoun Democrat CALH D CLD
Cass Democrat CASS D CSD
Cincinnatus Nonpartisan Movement CNM CNM
Citizen Independent or Independent Citizen CI/IC CZI
Citzen and County Democrat CIT & CO D CZD
Citzens CIT CZ
Civ. A CIV A CVA
Clay Democrat CLAY D CYD
Clay Republican CLAY R CYR
Clinton Republican CLINT R CTR
Coalition COALIT CTN
Colored Republican COLOR R CLR
Commonwealth CP CP
Commonwealth Land Party CLP CLP
Communist COM COM
Conservative C C
Conservative Democrat CD CD
Conservative Republican CR CR
Constitution CONST CN
Constitutional Union CST CST
County Democrat CO D COD
Creole Faction CREOLE CRE
D.P.U.S. DPUS DPU
Dem., Ind. League, Am., Nat'l Progessive, Ind. DIL ANPI DNI
Dem., Ind. League, Amer., Nat'l. Progressive DIL A NP DAN
Democrat D D
Democrat (S.M.) D SM DSM
Democrat and Independence League D & IL DIL
Democrat and American D & AM DA
Democrat and Anti-Masonic D & A-MASC DAM
Democrat and Anti-Rent D & A-RENT DAR
Democrat and Farmers Alliance D & F ALNC DFA
Democrat and Greenback D & G DG
Democrat and Independent D & I DI
Democrat and Independent Democrat D & ID DID
Democrat and Independent Populist D & I POP DPO
Democrat and Labor D & LAB DLB
Democrat and Law Preservation and Liberty D & LP DLP
Democrat and Liberal D & L D&L
Democrat and Populist D & POP DMP
Democrat and Progressive D & PROG DPR
Democrat and Prohibition D & P D&P
Democrat and Silver D & SILVER DSL
Democrat and Socialist D & SOC D&S
Democrat and Union Labor D & UN LAB DUL
Democrat Citizen D CIT DC
Democrat Farmer-Labor DFL DF
Democrat National Progressive D NPR DNP
Democrat Reform D-REF DRM
Democrat, Independent League D IL DIG
Democrat, Keyston and Progressive D K & PROG DKP
Democrat, Law Preservation and Liberty D LP & L DLY
Democrat, People's Independent and Progressive D PPI & PR DPI
Democrat, Populist, Prohibition & Free Silver DPOP PFS DPF
Democrat-Fusion D-FUS DFS
Democrat-Hanker D-HANKER DHK
Democratic (Silver) D SIL DSV
Democratic National DN DN
Democratic National and Free Silver DN & FS DNF
Democratic Republican, Socialist DR SOC DRC
Democratic Social D SOCIAL DSO
Democratic Socialist D SOC DSC
Democratic, Republican, Socialist D R & SOC DRS
Democratic-Independent DI D-I
Democrat-Independent Progressive D-IP DIP
Democrat-La Follette-Independent D-LAF I LAF
Democrat-Labor-Peoples D-LAB-PP DPP
Democrat-Liberal D-Lib DL
Democrat-National Green Labor D-NG LAB DNG
Democrat-Other Parties D-OP DOP
Democrat-Peoples D-PP D-P
Democrat-Populist Independent D-POP I DP
Democrat-Progressive-Townsend D-PRO-TN DPT
Democrat-Republican D-R D-R
Democrat-Republican/Federalist D-R/FED DRF
Democrat-Working Man D-WM DWM
Direct People's Candidate DPPC DPC
Dissident Democrat DISS D DD
Distributionist Candidate DISTRIB DIS
Dodd Independent DODD I DOD
Douglas Democrat DOUG D DGD
Elec. Prog. EP EP
Emancipation EMANCIP EMA
Equal Right ER ER
Equal Tax E TAX ETX
Fair Play F PLAY FPY
Farmer-Labor F-LAB FL
Farmer's F F
Farmers' Alliance F ALNC FAL
Father Coughlin's Principles, Republican FACP R FCR
Federal FEDL FEL
Federalist FED FED
Federalist and Independent Democrat-Republican FED I D-R FDR
Federated Labor FEDL AB FAB
Fillmore American FILL AM FMA
Florida People's Party FLA PP FPP
'Free Bridge' Republican FB R FBR
Free Silver F SIL FSL
Free Soil F SOIL FSO
Free Soil and Scattering FS & SC FSS
Free Soil Coalition FS CLN FCL
Free Soil Democrat F SOIL D FSD
Free Soil Whig F SOIL W FSW
Fremont American FREM AM FA
Fusion FUS FUS
Fusion-Democrat-Populist FUS-D-PO FUD
Gold Democrat GOLD D GDD
Good Government GOOD GG
Green GREEN G
Greenback G GB
Greenback and Democrat G & D G&D
Greenback and Prohibition G & P G&P
Greenback and Republican G & R G&R
Greenback Democrat GD GD
Greenback Labor G LAB GLB
Greenback Labor and Prohibition G LAB & P GLP
Hard Democratic HARD D HD
Higgins Republican HIG R HIR
High License H LIC HLC
High Life HL HL
Honest Elections HE HE
Hunker HUNKER HK
Illinois Solidarity IS IS
Independence INDEP IND
Independence (New York) IND INY
Independence League I LEAGUE ILU
Independence League and National Progressive IL & NPR IL
Independent I I
Independent American IA IA
Independent and Democrat I & D I&D
Independent Citizens I CIT ICT
Independent Conservative IC IC
Independent Democracy I DEMOC IDM
Independent Democrat ID ID
Independent Democrat and Opposition ID & OPP IO
Independent Democratic Republican I D-R IDR
Independent Democratic Republican and Prohibition ID R & P IRP
Independent Greenback IG IG
Independent Greenback and Republican IG & R IGR
Independent League I LG ILG
Independent Non-Partisan I N-PART INP
Independent Party IP IP
Independent People's Choice IPP CH IPC
Independent Progressive I PROG IPG
Independent Radical Republican I RAD R IRD
Independent Republican IR IR
Independent Republican and Democrat IR & D  
Independent Republican and Prohibition IR & P  
Independent Socialist I SOC ISC
Independent Whig IW  
Independent-National I-N I-N
Independent-Progressive-Republicans I-PROG-R IPR
Independent-Progressive-Socialist I-PR-SOC IPS
Independent-Public Ownership I-PO IPO
Independent-Reform I REF IRF
Independent Hard Democrat I HARD D IHD
Industrial INDUST IDU
Industrial Government IND GOVT IGV
Industrialist INDL INL
Irregular Union IRR U  
Irregular Whig IRR W  
Jackson JAC  
Jackson and Adams Republican JAC & AR  
Jackson Democrat JAC D  
Jackson Republican JAC R  
Jacksonian Republican JACS R  
Jefferson-Democrat JEFF D  
Jeffersonian JEFFS  
Keystone KEY  
Know-Nothing KN  
Kolbite Populist K POP  
La Follette LAF  
La Follette Independent LAF I  
La Raza Union LRU  
Labor LAB LA
Labor and Populist LAB & POP LAP
Labor Reform LAB REF LAR
Labor-Farm LAB F L-F
Labor-Republican LAB-R  
Land Distribution Democrat LD D  
Land Distribution Republican LD R  
Law and Order LAW ORD  
Law Enforcement LAW ENF  
Law Preservation LAW PRES  
Liberal L LB
Liberal Republican LR  
Liberal-Labor-Democratic L-LAB D  
Liberation Whig LIBER W  
Libertarian LIBERT L
Liberty LIB  
Liberty and Socialist LIB & SC  
Liberty Union LU  
Life, Liberty, Justice LLJ LLJ
Lily-White Republican LW R  
Lincoln LINCOLN  
Lincoln Fair Deal LFD  
Locofoco LOCOFOCO  
Low Tax Democrat LOWTAX D  
McKinley Sound Money MCK SM  
Middle of the Road Populist MID ROAD  
Minstrel Republican MR  
Moderate Republican MOD R MDR
Mozart Democrat MOZART D MZD
National American N AM  
National Democrat ND  
National Democratic Party of Alabama NDPA NDP
National Greenback NG  
National Party N N
National Progressive N PROG  
National Prohibition NP  
National Republican NR NR
National Republican-Anti-Mason NR-A-MAS  
National States Rights NSR NSR
National Union N UNION  
Native American NAM  
Natural Law NL NL
Nebraska Democrat NEB D  
NebraskaNonpartisan League NEB  
Neighborhood NEIGH NEI
New Alliance NA NA
New Deal NEW DEAL NDL
New Independent NEW I  
New Leadership NEW LEAD NLD
New Reformist NEW REF NRF
No Party Affiliation None N/A
Non Partisan NON PART NP
Non Partisan league NON PL  
North Carolina Republican NC R  
Nullification-National Republican NULL-NR  
Nullifier NULL  
Nullifier Democrat NULL D  
Old Age Pension OLD AGE  
Old Republican OLD R  
Open Book OB OB
Opposition OPP  
Opposition and Scattering OPP & SC  
Opposition Democrat OPP D  
Opposition Republican OPP R  
Other Other O
Pacific Pacific PA
Peace and Freedom PFP PFP
Peace Democrat PEACE D  
People's and Republican PP & R  
People's Candidate PP CAND  
People's Independent PPI  
People's Party PP PP
People's Party and Democrat PP & D  
People's Party and Silver Republican PP & SIL R  
People's Party Labor, Democratic Republican, Silver PPL DRS  
People's-Democrat-Silver-Republican PP-D-S-R  
Popular Government POPU GOV PG
Population-Labor P-LAB  
Populist POP  
Populist and Republican POP & R  
Populist Independent POP I  
Populist Silver POP SIL  
PRC, Townsend PRC TOWN PTN
Primary Republican PRI R PRR
Pro-Bank PRO-BANK  
Progressive PROG PR
Progressive and Businessmen's PROG & BUS  
Progressive and Independence League PROG & IL  
Progressive Democrat PROG D  
Progressive Republican PROG R  
Progressive-Bull Moose-Roosevelt PROG-BMR PBR
Progressive-Prohibition PROG-P PRP
Prohibition P P
Prohibition, Democrat, Socialist P D SOC  
Prohibition, Democrat-Republican and Progressive P D-R & PR  
Protectionist PT  
Public Ownership PUB OWN  
Pure Politics PURE POL  
Radical RAD RAD
Radical Republican RAD R RRD
Rate Payers Against LILCO RP  
Readjuster READJ RJT
Redemption Democrat REDEM D RDD
Reform REF RF
Reform Democrat REF D RFD
Regular REG RGR
Repbulican and Prohibition R & P R&P
Repeal REPEAL RAL
Repeal League REPEAL L RLG
Republican, Farmer-Labor-Prohibition R F-L-P  
Republican-Gold Democrat R-GOLD D RGD
Republican R R
Republican American R AM  
Republican American and Progressive R AM & PR  
Republican and Anti-Monopoly R & A-MONO  
Republican and Anti-Tammany R & A-TAM  
Republican and Anti-Trust Republican R & A-T R  
Republican and City Fusion R & CF  
Republican and Farmer's Alliance R & F ALNC  
Republican and Independence League R & IL  
Republican and Independent Democrat R & ID  
Republican and Law Preservation R & LP  
Republican and National Democrat R & ND  
Republican and National Greenback R & NG  
Republican and Progressive R & PROG RPR
Republican and Square Deal R & SQDEAL  
Republican and Temperance R & TEMP  
Republican and Union Labor R & UL  
Republican and Young Democracy R & YD  
Republican Citizens R CIT  
Republican City Fusion and Law Preservation RCF & LP RCF
Republican Delegate Convention RDC RDC
Republican Greenback RG RG
Republican Ind. League and National Progressive R IL & NPR  
Republican Ind. League, Amer. Nat'l Progressive RIL A NP RAN
Republican National Progressive R NPR  
Republican Party and Delegate Convention RP & DC RPD
Republican Write-in R WRITE-IN RW
Republican, Bull Moose and Progressive R BM & PR  
Republican, City Fusion, and Recovery R CF & REC  
Republican, Constitutional, and City Fusion R CST & CF  
Republican, Democrat, Progressive, Townsend RDPT RDT
Republican, Independence League and Progressive R IL PR  
Republican, Independent League, Prohibition, Nat'l Progressive RIL P NP RIL
Republican, Keystone and Washington R K & WASH  
Republican, Keystone, Washington and Roosevelt Progressive RKW & ROPR RKW
Republican, Nat'l. Progressive, American R NPR AM  
Republican, Progressive, Independence League R PR IL  
Republican, Prohibition and Progressive R P & PROG RPG
Republican, Prohibition, and Progressive RP & PROG  
Republican, Prohibition, Nat'l Progressive R P NPR RNP
Republican, Socialist, and Law Preservation R SOC & LP  
Republican, 'Vic', and City Fusion R VIC & CF  
Republican-Democrat R-D R-D
Republican-Democratic-Progressive R-D-PROG RDP
Republican-Democrat-Progressive-Commonwealth R-D-PR-C RPC
Republican-Democrat-Prohibition R-D-P RDH
Republican-Farmer Labor R-F-LAB RFL
Republican-Federalist Fusion R-FF  
Republican-Greenback-Fusion R-G-FUS  
Republican-Silver Republican R-SIL R  
Republican-Union R-UNION R-U
Rich County Independent RCI RCI
Right to Life RTL RL
Rob. Republican ROB R RR
Robinson Citizens Party ROBINSON RCP
Roosevelt RO RO
Roosevelt Progressive RO PROG ROP
Roosevelt Social Democrat RO SOC D RSD
Scales of Justice SOJ SCJ
Secession Democrat SEC D SCD
Secessionist SEC SC
Secessionist Whig SEC W SCW
Silver Republican SIL R VR
Silver-Republican-Democrat SIL-R-D VRD
Single Tax SINGLE T STX
Social Democrat SOCIAL D SD
Socialist SOC S
Socialist and Law Preservation SOC & LP SLP
Socialist and Progressive SOC & PROG SPR
Socialist Farmer-Labor SOC & F-L SFL
Socialist Labor SOC LAB SL
Socialist Workers SOC WORK SW
Soft Democrat SOFT D SFD
Soft Democrat and American SOFT D & AM SDA
Sound Money Democrat SM D SMD
Southern Democrat SO D SOD
Southern Rights SO RTS SOR
Southern Rights Democrat SO RTS D SSD
Southern Rights Whig SOR W SOW
Stalwart Democrat STAL D SWD
Stalwart Silver STAL SIL SWS
State Credit Democrat STC D  
State Democrat STATE D STD
State Rights SR SR
State Rights Free Trader SR FT SRF
State Rights Whig SR W SRW
States Rights VB R VBR
State's Rights Democrat SR D SRD
State's Rights Nullifier SSR NULL STN
Sticker STICKER ST
Straight Out Democrat SOD SGD
Straight People Party SPP SPP
Taft for President TAFT TFT
Tammany TAM TM
Tammany and New York Democracy TAM & NY D TMN
Tammany Democrat TAM D TMD
Tammany Democrat and Union Labor TAM D & UL TUL
Taxpayers Party to Cut Taxes TPCT  
Taylor Democrat TAYLOR D TD
Taylor Whig TAYLOR W TW
Temperance TEMP T
Temperance Reform TEMP REF TR
The Third Party THIRD TP
Toleration TOL TOL
Townsend TOWN TOW
Townsend Old Age Pension TOWN OAP TOP
Townsend Social Justice TOWN SJ TSJ
Townsend-Coughlin-Labor TOWN-C-L TCL
Townsend-Social Justice Democratic TOWN-SJD TSD
U.S. Taxpayers Primary USTAX TAX
Ultra Abolitionist ULTRA AB UA
Ultra-Veto Democrat UVD UVD
Union UN UN
Union and Square Deal UN & SQD USQ
Union Democrat UN D UD
Union Labor UN LAB ULB
Union Labor and Democrat UN LAB & D ULD
Union Progressive UN PROG UNP
Union Republican UN R UNR
Union Whig UN W UW
Unionist UNT U
United U UND
United Citizen U CIT UCT
Unity UT UT
Unknown Unknown UNK
Unpledged Democrat D-Unpledged DU
Unpledged Republican UNP R U-R
Van Buren Democrat VB D VBD
Vermont Grassroots VG VG
Veterans Victory VETS V VV
Washington WASH WA
Whig W W
Whig and American W & AM WHA
Whig and Anti-Masonic W & A-MASC WAM
Whig Anti-Rent W-A-RENT  
Whig Free Soil W FS WFS
White Democrat WHITE D WD
Wildcat WILDCAT  
William Penn WM PENN WMP
Wilson Independent WILSON I WI
Workers (Communist) Party of America WCP AM WCA
Workingmen WM WM
Workingmen's Party or League WMP/L WML
Write-in WRITE-IN WR
Young Democrat and Republican YD & R YDR