The chart lists key antiquities law titles, countries of origin, year and description.

Source: Compiled by CQ Researcher

Data for the graphic are as follows:

Title of Legislation Country Year Legislation Description
American Antiquities Act U.S. 1906 Barred digging on public land without a permit; aimed at controlling Pueblo artifacts trade.
National Stolen Property Act U.S. 1934 Prohibited movement of stolen or fraudulently acquired goods worth at least $5,000 across state or national borders.
Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict (Administered by U.N. Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) 129 countries 1954 First international treaty devoted to protecting cultural property during war. Countries agreed to refrain from damaging cultural property within their borders and in other signatory nations.
Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property (Administered by U.N. Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) 134 countries 1970 Signatories agreed to require export certificates for artifacts and their return to the source country upon request. Enforcement depended on the strength of each country's implementing law.
Antiquities Law of the State of Israel Israel 1978 First law in Israel establishing a legal antiquities market through state-licensed dealers. Required dealers to inventory all pre-1700 objects and obtain a license to export an antiquity.
Archaeological Resources Protection Act U.S. 1979 Imposed fines of up to $20,000 and a year in jail for looting artifacts on Indian or federal land; up to 5 years and $100,000 for second offense.
Convention on Cultural Property Implementation Act U.S. 1983 Implemented the 1970 treaty in the United States; scope limited by requirement that countries have a bilateral agreement with the U.S. before they can request the U.S. ban imports of imperiled artifacts. Sixteen countries have such agreements.
Egyptian Law on the Protection of Antiquities Egypt 1983 Declared antiquities discovered after 1983 the property of the Egyptian government and barred export.
Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act U.S. 1990 Required museums and federal agencies to return human remains and funerary objects requested by culturally affiliated Native American tribes for reburial.
Iraq Sanctions Act U.S. 1990 Banned import of Iraqi antiquities.
Act on the Protection of Cultural Property Germany 2016 Required documentation that an imported antiquity was legally exported from source country.
Protect and Preserve International Cultural Property Act U.S. 2016 Restricted importation of Syrian “archeological or ethnological material.”

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