Indirect Aggression

February 20, 1957

Report Outline
Indirect Aggression and the Middle East
Soviet Infiltration of the Middle East
Leading Cases of Indirect Aggression
Efforts to Cope with Indirect Aggression

Indirect Aggression and the Middle East

President's Plan as Curb on Indirect Aggression

When president eisenhower asked Congress to authorize him to use military force and economic aid to combat Communist aggression in the Middle East, he made it clear that he was seeking to meet the threat not only of direct but also of indirect aggression. Because an overt attack by the Soviet Union was generally considered unlikely. Red infiltration and subversion seemed in fact to present the most immediate danger. No one needed to be reminded, moreover, that aggression in that form could be as effective as armed assault or invasion in destroying the independence of its victim.

The joint resolution to carry out the Eisenhower proposals was adopted by the House of Representatives with little change on Jan. 30 and is now before the Senate. Both in its original form and as amended by the Senate Foreign Relations and Armed Services committees, the legislation contemplates employment of the armed forces of the United States only to repel direct aggression. However, the President said when he made his request of Congress on Jan. 5:

Experience shows that indirect aggression rarely if ever succeeds where there is reasonable security against direct aggression; where the government possesses loyal security forces; and where economic conditions are such as not to make Communism seem an attractive alternative. The program I suggest deals with all three, aspects of this matter and thus with the problem of Indirect aggression.

ISSUE TRACKER for Related Reports
U.S.-Soviet Relations
Sep. 14, 1990  The Western Alliance After the Cold War
Feb. 10, 1989  Soviet Trade: In America's Best Interest?
Nov. 01, 1985  U.S.-Soviet Summitry
Jul. 09, 1982  Controlling Scientific Information
May 25, 1973  Trends in U.S.-Soviet Relations
Apr. 05, 1972  Russia's Diplomatic Offensive
Feb. 09, 1972  Trading with Communist Nations
Mar. 10, 1971  Indian Ocean Policy
Apr. 21, 1965  Negotiations with Communists
Nov. 13, 1963  Scientific Cooperation with the Soviet Union
Oct. 03, 1963  Trade with the Communists
Sep. 11, 1963  Non-Aggression Pacts and Surprise Attack
Oct. 11, 1961  East-West Negotiations
Mar. 29, 1961  Russia and United Nations
Aug. 10, 1960  Challenged Monroe Doctrine
Sep. 02, 1959  American-Soviet Trade
Jul. 03, 1959  Cultural Exchanges with Soviet Russia
Aug. 11, 1958  Conference Diplomacy
Jul. 23, 1958  Limited War
May 14, 1958  Cold War Propaganda
Feb. 26, 1958  Military Disengagement
Feb. 20, 1957  Indirect Aggression
Jul. 25, 1956  Trading with Communists
Jan. 11, 1956  Economic Cold War
Nov. 26, 1954  Peaceful Coexistence
Dec. 01, 1953  Tests of Allied Unity
Sep. 18, 1953  Negotiating with the Reds
Jun. 17, 1953  East-West Trade
Apr. 12, 1951  Non-Military Weapons in Cold-War Offensive
Apr. 20, 1949  Mediterranean Pact and Near East Security
Apr. 28, 1948  Trade with Russia
Sep. 11, 1946  Loyalty in Government
Jul. 31, 1946  Arctic Defenses
Apr. 01, 1943  American and British Relations with Russia
Feb. 24, 1933  Soviet-American Political and Trade Relations
Nov. 03, 1931  Russian-American Relations
Feb. 14, 1924  Russian Trade with the United States
Cold War
Middle East Conflicts
Regional Political Affairs: Middle East and South Asia
U.S. at War: Cold War
War and Conflict