Military Manpower Policies

February 14, 1962

Report Outline
Mobilization of Reserves in Peacetime
Reserve Forces Policy: Past and Future
Reliance on Conscription for Manpower
Special Focus

Mobilization of Reserves in Peacetime

A new look is being taken by the Kennedy administration and by Congress at the structure, size, readiness and usefulness of the reserve military forces of the United States. Reappraisal comes in the wake of controversy engendered by the mobilization last October of 156,-000 National Guardsmen and members of the Organized Reserve.

Defense Department officials already have made known their decision to rely on regular forces in future cold war emergencies, rather than on rapid expansion of military manpower through a call-up of reservists. President Kennedy asked Congress in his budget message, Jan. 18, to provide funds for an increase in the number of regular Army divisions from 14 to 16. He said the new divisions would take the place of the two National Guard divisions called to active duty to meet the latest Soviet threat to Allied rights of access to Berlin.

Various congressional committees, meanwhile, are looking into complaints raised by last October's call-up and into weaknesses that it revealed. Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara, appearing before the Senate Armed Services Committee on Jan. 19, outlined a plan for thorough overhaul of the reserve forces to increase their ability to respond to future emergencies. Congress may be reluctant, however, to approve the administration's tentative plan to reduce the strength of Army reserve components in a paid drill status by 31,000 men in the fiscal year beginning next July 1.

ISSUE TRACKER for Related Reports
Military Draft
Aug. 19, 2005  Draft Debates
Jan. 11, 1991  Should the U.S. Reinstate the Draft?
Jun. 13, 1980  Draft Registration
Jun. 20, 1975  Volunteer Army
Nov. 17, 1971  Rebuilding the Army
Nov. 18, 1970  Expatriate Americans
Mar. 20, 1968  Resistance to Military Service
Jun. 22, 1966  Draft Law Revision
Jan. 20, 1965  Reserve Forces and the Draft
Feb. 14, 1962  Military Manpower Policies
Jun. 03, 1954  Military Manpower
Sep. 24, 1952  National Health and Manpower Resources
Oct. 24, 1950  Training for War Service
Aug. 21, 1950  Manpower Controls
Aug. 13, 1945  Peacetime Conscription
Sep. 09, 1944  The Voting Age
Apr. 15, 1944  Universal Military Service
Feb. 17, 1942  Compulsory Labor Service
Jun. 11, 1941  Revision of the Draft System
Aug. 14, 1940  Conscription in the United States
Apr. 24, 1939  Conscription for Military Service
Military Draft
Reserves and National Guard