Chino-Japanese Relations

October 26, 1936

Report Outline
Negotiation of Chino-Japanese Differences
Growing Japanese Penetration in China
Chinese Nationalists and Chinese Communists
Soviet Russia and Tokyo's Aspirations in China

Negotiation of Chino-Japanese Differences

Negotiations at Nanking on the latest series of Japanese demands upon China appear to have reached a deadlock. While conversations are continuing between Foreign Minister Chang Chun of China and Ambassador Kawagoe of Japan, it is a matter of speculation as to how long Tokyo will refrain from positive action in the event that Chinese officials maintain an unyielding attitude. Japan's willingness to resort to negotiation instead of force or threats of force, in the situation created by the murder of five Japanese subjects in China in August and September, has been generally attributed to realization that conditions in China are now such that demands involving further encroachments on that country's prerogatives as an independent nation could not be enforced by measures short of war.

Although displaying on the surface an uncommonly mild attitude toward the Chinese authorities, Japan nevertheless utilized the situation created by the outrages against its citizens to present at Nanking a group of proposals reminiscent of the famous Twenty-One Demands of 1915. Unofficial versions of their contents support the assertion that acceptance would seriously restrict the Chinese government's freedom of action and greatly increase Japan's influence on the Asiatic mainland. While some disposition toward modification has been evident, it is recalled that presentation of the Twenty-One Demands on January 18, 1915, was followed, after a period of negotiation, by delivery of a 48-hour ultimatum on May 7, 1915. Events in the Far East during the last five years tend to heighten apprehensions that, if conditions became propitious, Japan might seize the opportunity to attempt another forward move in its progressive penetration of China.

Japan's Current Demands and Hirota's Three Points

As in 1915, efforts were made to keep the current proposals secret. No official statement detailing their terms has been made, but in a dispatch from Shanghai published on September 28, 1936, a correspondent of the New York Times reported that he had learned from “an unimpeachable source” that the three major demands were:

ISSUE TRACKER for Related Reports
Apr. 08, 2022  China Today
Jul. 24, 2020  China Rising
Jan. 25, 2019  China's Belt and Road Initiative
Jan. 20, 2017  China and the South China Sea
Apr. 04, 2014  China Today
May 07, 2010  U.S.-China Relations Updated
Nov. 11, 2005  Emerging China
Aug. 04, 2000  China Today
Jun. 13, 1997  China After Deng
May 24, 1996  Taiwan, China and the U.S.
Apr. 15, 1994  U.S. - China Trade
Apr. 13, 1984  China: Quest for Stability and Development
Dec. 05, 1980  Trade with China
Sep. 08, 1978  China's Opening Door
Feb. 08, 1974  China After Mao
May 26, 1972  Future of Taiwan
Jun. 16, 1971  Reconciliation with China
Aug. 07, 1968  China Under Mao
Sep. 13, 1967  Burma and Red China
Mar. 15, 1967  Hong Kong and Macao: Windows into China
Apr. 27, 1966  China and the West
Nov. 25, 1964  Relations With Red China
Oct. 05, 1960  Russia and Red China
Mar. 18, 1959  Red China's Communes
Oct. 22, 1958  Overseas Chinese
Jul. 24, 1957  China Policy
Apr. 24, 1957  Passport Policy
Feb. 16, 1955  Problem of Formosa
Sep. 15, 1954  Red China and the United Nations
Apr. 28, 1953  Status of Red China
Apr. 03, 1953  War in Indo-China
Mar. 13, 1952  Chinese-Soviet Relations
Jun. 20, 1951  Blockades and Embargoes
Aug. 29, 1950  Formosa Policy
Mar. 09, 1950  Aid to Indo-China
Nov. 24, 1948  China's Civil War
Aug. 06, 1945  Government of China
Feb. 17, 1945  Development of China
Jun. 07, 1943  Oriental Exclusion
Oct. 26, 1936  Chino-Japanese Relations
Jan. 02, 1928  The Position and Problems of Chinese Nationalism
Apr. 15, 1927  Foreign Intervention in China
Feb. 04, 1927  China and the Great Powers
Dec. 18, 1925  Extraterritoriality in China
Sep. 24, 1924  Military and Civil Aspects of the War in China
Conflicts in Asia
Regional Political Affairs: East Asia and the Pacific
War and Conflict