New Space Race

August 4, 2017 – Volume 27, Issue 28
Is the U.S. falling behind Russia and China? By Patrick Marshall


[1] Ben Evans, “Soyuz TMA-12M Crew Ready for Six-Hour Fast Ride to Space Station,” America Space, undated,; The Soyuz Experience in Photos,” Canadian Space Agency, undated,; “NASA Astronaut Randy Bresnik Available for Interviews Before Space Station Mission,” media advisory, NASA, July 17, 2017,

[2] Sean O'Kane, “NASA buys two more seats to the International Space Station on Russia's Soyuz rocket,” The Verge, Feb. 28, 2017,

[3] Doug Lamborn, “Time to get serious about space threats,” The Hill, May 14, 2015,

[4] Dave Baiocchi and William Welser IV, “The Democratization of Space New Actors Need New Rules,” Foreign Affairs, May/June 2015, p. 98,

[5] Bill Canis, “Commercial Space Industry Launches a New Phase,” Congressional Research Service, Dec. 12, 2016, p. 1,

[6] Elbridge Colby, “From Sanctuary to Battlefield: A Framework for a U.S. Defense and Deterrence Strategy for Space,” Center for a New American Security, January 2017,

[7] Testimony of Lt. Gen. John W. Raymond before the House Armed Services Subcommittee on Strategic Forces, March 25, 2015,

[8] “U.S. Should Stop Relying on Russian Rockets,” editorial board, Observer, May 17, 2016,; O'Kane, op. cit.

[9] Anthony Cave, “John McCain on target about American reliance on Russian rocket engines,” PolitiFact Arizona, Jan. 29, 2016,

[10] Testimony of James A. Lewis before the House Science, Space, and Technology Subcommittee on Space, “Are We Losing the Space Race to China?” Sept. 27, 2016,

[11] “China's Secretive Space Program Threatens NASA's dominance,” Bloomberg News, Nov. 28, 2016,

[12] Steven Jiang, “China: We will be on Mars by the end of 2020,” CNN, Jan. 5, 2017,

[13] Leonard David, “China's Anti-Satellite Test: Worrisome Debris Cloud Circles Earth,”, Feb. 2, 2007,; “China's President Urges Militarization of Space,” Fox News, April 15, 2014,

[14] “National Security Space Defense and Protection,” National Academies Press, 2016,; “UCS Satellite Database,” Union of Concerned Scientists, April 11, 2017,

[15] John Logsdon, “Ten Presidents and NASA,” 50th Magazine, NASA, undated,

[16] Kerry Sheridan, “NASA delays deep-space Orion test to 2019 due to costs,”, May 12, 2017,; Loren Grush, “Trump's NASA budget cancels Europa lander and Asteroid Redirect Mission,” The Verge, March 16, 2017,

[17] Statement of Chairman Lamar Smith, R-Texas, “Next Steps to Mars: Deep Space Habitats,” House Science, Space and Technology Committee, May 18, 2016,

[18] “SpaceX blasts off cargo using recycled spaceship,”, June 3, 2017,; “Completed Missions,” SpaceX,; “SpaceX To Send Privately Crewed Dragon Spacecraft Beyond The Moon Next Year,” SpaceX News, Feb. 27, 2017,

[19] Rolfe Winkler and Andy Pasztor, “Exclusive Peek at SpaceX Data Shows Loss in 2015, Heavy Expectations for Nascent Internet Service,” The Wall Street Journal, Jan. 13, 2017,

[20] Canis, op. cit., pp. 4, 10; “The Commercial Space Industry and Launch Market,” everyCRS, April 20, 2012,

[21] Robin McKie, “Astronauts lift our spirits. But can we afford to send humans into space?” The Guardian, Dec. 6, 2014,; Andrew Follett, “NASA Vetoes Trump's Plan To Return Astronauts To Moon In 2019,” The Daily Caller, May 14, 2017,

[22] Colby, op. cit., p. 10.

[23] “Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies,” U.S. Department of State, undated,

[24] Jonathan Broder, “Why the Next Pearl Harbor Could Happen in Space,” Newsweek, May 4, 2016,

[25] Ibid.

[26] James R. Clapper, “Statement for the Record: Worldwide Threat Assessment of the US Intelligence Community,” Senate Armed Services Committee, Feb. 9, 2016,

[27] Calla Cofield, “What President Trump Means for NASA,”, Nov. 10, 2016,

[28] “NASA Space Station Cargo Launches aboard Orbital ATK Resupply Mission,” news release, NASA, April 18, 2017,; Jeff Foust, “Blue Origin still planning commercial suborbital flights in 2018,” Space News, April 5, 2017,

[29] “Commercial Crew Program — The Essentials,” NASA, undated,

[30] Robert Zimmerman, “Capitalism in Space: Private Enterprise and Competition Reshape the Global Aerospace Launch Industry,” Center for a New American Security, January 2017, p. 27,

[31] Loren Thompson, “Capitalism In Space: The Beguiling Myth Market Forces Can Fix Everything,” Forbes, March 16, 2017,

[32] Canis, op. cit., p. 8.

[33] Scott Pace, “Wishful thinking collides with policy, economic realities in ‘Capitalism in Space,’” Space News, April 4, 2017,

[34] Ben Guarino, “Stephen Hawking calls for a return to the moon as Earth's clock runs out,” The Washington Post, June 21, 2017,

[35] Darlene Superville, “Trump Wants to Send Humans to Mars,” The Associated Press, U.S. News & World Report, March 21, 2017,; S.A. Miller, “Trump renews NASA mission for human space travel, deep space exploration,” The Washington Times, March 21, 2017,

[36] Marina Koren, “Trump's Advisers Want to Return Humans to the Moon in Three Years,” The Atlantic, Feb. 9, 2017,

[37] Christian Davenport, “An exclusive look at Jeff Bezos's plan to set up Amazon-like delivery for ‘future human settlement’ of the moon,” The Washington Post, March 2, 2017,

[38] Text of H.R.870 — REAL Space Act,, undated,; Damien Sharkov, “Russia Plans New Rocket For Future Moon Base,” Newsweek, Nov. 11, 2016,; and Andrew Griffin, “China and Europe to build a base on the moon and launch other projects into space,” The Independent, April 26, 2017, wng2p.

[39] Shannon Stirone, “Meet the Republican Congressman Obsessed With Sending America Back to the Moon,” Motherboard, Feb. 27, 2017,

[40] Testimony of Robert Richards before the Senate Commerce, Science, and Transportation Subcommittee on Science, Space, and Competitiveness, May 23, 2017,

[41] Eric Berger, “Quietly, NASA is reconsidering the moon as a destination,” The Houston Chronicle, April 3, 2015,

[42] Richard Gray, “‘We could be living on the moon by 2022’: Nasa claims a ‘cheap’ $10 billion lunar base will be ready for humans in just six years,” The Daily Mail, March 24, 2016,

[43] Calla Cofield, “The Moon or Mars? NASA Must Pick 1 Goal for Astronauts, Experts Tell Congress,”, Feb. 4, 2016,

[44] Cian O'Luanaigh, “No need for manned spaceflight, says astronomer royal Martin Rees,” The Guardian, July 26, 2010,

[45] Hanneke Weitering, “50th Anniversary of Apollo 1 Fire: What NASA Learned from the Tragic Accident,”, Jan. 27, 2017,

[46] Jeff Foust, “Weighing the risks of human spaceflight,” The Space Review, July 21, 2003,

[47] “Spirit and Opportunity,” NASA, undated,

[48] Davod Szondy, “NASA works to wake up Curiosity as mission gets two-year extension,” New Atlas, July 7, 2016,

[49] Ted Spitzmiller, The History Of Human Space Flight (2017), p. 128.

[50] Ibid., p. 129.

[51] Statement by the President Upon Signing the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958, July 29, 1958, The American Presidency Project, University of California, Santa Barbara,

[52] Logsdon, op. cit.

[53] Steven J. Dick, “50 Years of NASA History,” 50th Magazine, NASA, undated,

[54] “Glenn Orbits the Earth,” NASA, Feb. 16, 2012,

[55] Spitzmiller, op. cit., p. 226.

[56] “What Was the Gemini Program?” NASA, March 16, 2011,

[57] Logsdon, op. cit.

[58] Ibid.; William Harwood, “JFK legacy: Setting America on course for the moon,” CBS News, Nov. 21, 2013,

[59] “What Was the Apollo Program?” NASA, July 19, 2017,; Rochelle Oliver and Amisha Padnani, “They Walked on the Moon,” The New York Times, Jan. 17, 2017,

[60] “National Security Space Defense and Protection,” Committee on National Security Space Defense and Protection, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, National Academy of Sciences, 2016, p. 9,; Lee Billings, “War in Space May Be Closer Than Ever,” Scientific American, Aug. 10, 2015,

[61] “Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies,” Office for Outer Space Affairs, United Nations, undated,

[62] Logsdon, op. cit.

[63] Ibid.

[64] “Nasa budgets: US spending on space travel since 1958,” DataBlog, The Guardian, undated,

[65] Spitzmiller, op. cit., p. 429.

[66] “What Was the Apollo Program?” op. cit.

[67] “President Nixon's 1972 Announcement on the Space Shuttle,” NASA, undated,

[68] Spitzmiller, op. cit., p. 460.

[69] “The Skylab Crewed Missions,” NASA, May 6, 2013,

[70] Spitzmiller, op. cit., p. 464.

[71] “Why Did NASA End the Space Shuttle Program?” Forbes, Feb. 2, 2017,

[72] “Space Shuttle Era,” NASA, undated,; “First American Woman in Space,” NASA, updated July 31, 2015,; Clara Moskowitz, “Space Shuttle's Lasting Legacy: 30 Years of Historic Feats,”, April 6, 2011,

[73] Moskowitz, op. cit.

[74] Dick, op. cit.

[75] Canis, op. cit., p. 1; President Ronald Reagan, “Statement on Signing the Commercial Space Launch Act,” The American Presidency Project, University of California, Santa Barbara, Oct. 30, 1984,

[76] “Commercial Orbital Transportation Service: A New Era in Space,” NASA, February 2014, p. 10,

[77] Ibid., p. 3.

[78] Tim Weiner, “Titan Lost Payload: Spy-Satellite System Worth $800 Million,” The New York Times, Aug. 4, 1993,

[79] Todd Harrison et al., “Beyond the RD-180,” Center for Strategic and International Studies, March 2017, p. 1,

[80] “H.R. 4399 (100th): Commercial Space Launch Act Amendments of 1988,” govtrack, Nov. 15, 1988,

[81] “Commercial Space Act of 1998, Title II — P.L. 105–303,” Office of the General Counsel, NASA, undated,

[82] “History and Timeline of the ISS,” Center for the Advancement of Science in Space, undated,; Tim Sharp, “International Space Station: Facts, History & Tracking,”, April 5, 2016,

[83] “International Space Station Legal Framework,” European Space Agency, undated,

[84] Anatoly Zak, “The Hidden History of the Soviet Satellite-Killer,” Popular Mechanics, Nov. 1, 2013,

[85] Broder, op. cit.

[86] Karl Tate, “Columbia Space Shuttle Disaster Explained (Infographic),”, Feb. 1, 2013,

[87] “President Bush Offers New Vision For NASA,” NASA, Jan. 14, 2004,

[88] Ker Than, “Obama Scrubs NASA's Manned Moon Missions,” National Geographic News, Feb. 1, 2010,; Clara Moskowitz, “NASA Stuck in Limbo as New Congress Takes Over,”, Jan. 7, 2011,; Zimmerman, op. cit., p. 10.

[89] Zimmerman, op. cit., p. 6.

[90] Ibid.

[91] Ibid., p. 15.

[92] “Commercial Crew Program — The Essentials,” op. cit.

[93] “H.R.2262 — U.S. Commercial Space Launch Competitiveness Act,”, undated,

[94] “Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies,” op. cit.

[95] Scott Pace, “Regulating Outer Space: Making Space Commerce a Priority,” Foreign Affairs, May 12, 2016,

[96] Testimony of Matthew P. Schaefer before the Senate Commerce, Science, and Transportation Subcommittee on Space, Science, and Competitiveness, May 23, 2017,

[97] Ibid.

[98] Testimony of James E. Dunstan and Berin Szoka before the Senate Commerce, Science, and Transportation Subcommittee on Space, Science, and Competitiveness, May 23, 2017,

[99] Testimony of Michael Gold before the Senate Commerce, Science and Transportation Subcommittee on Space, Science and Competitiveness, May 23, 2017,

[100] Canis, op. cit., p. 14.

[101] Testimony of James E. Dunstan and Berin Szoka, op. cit.

[102] Testimony of Eli Dourado before the House Science, Space, and Technology Subcommittee on Space, “Creating an Environment of Permissionless Innovation in Outer Space,” March 8, 2017,

[103] Testimony of Douglas L. Loverro before the House Science, Space, and Technology Subcommittee on Space, March 8, 2017,

[104] Jeff Foust, “Cruz interested in updating Outer Space Treaty to support commercial space activities,” Space News, April 26, 2017,

[105] Sarah Schlieder, “Trump Is Bringing Back The National Space Council … What's That?”, June 7, 2017,; “NASA Statement on National Space Council,” news release, NASA, June 30, 2017,

[106] Leonard David, “Playing the Space Trump Card: Relaunching a National Space Council,”, Dec. 29, 2016,

[107] Jeff Foust, “Executive order creating National Space Council expected soon,” Space News, May 2, 2017,

[108] John Logsdon, “Is creating a National Space Council the best choice?” The Space Review, Jan. 3, 2017,

[109] Colby, op. cit., p. 17.

[110] Statement of Rep. Lamar Smith, House Science, Space, and Technology Committee, Sept. 27, 2016,

[111] Baiocchi and Welser, op. cit., p. 100.

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Marshall, P. (2017, August 4). New space race. CQ researcher, 27, 653-676. Retrieved from
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Space Exploration
Aug. 04, 2017  New Space Race
Jun. 20, 2014  Search for Life On New Planets
Feb. 24, 2012  Space Program
Aug. 16, 2011  Weapons in Space
Oct. 16, 2009  Human Spaceflight
May 23, 2003  NASA's Future
Jul. 23, 1999  New Challenges in Space
Apr. 25, 1997  Space Program's Future
Dec. 24, 1993  Space Program's Future
Mar. 29, 1991  Uncertain Future for Man in Space
Jul. 31, 1987  Space Race
Feb. 07, 1986  Space Decisions after Challenger
Feb. 18, 1983  American Options in Space
Nov. 10, 1978  Changing U.S. Space Policy
Jul. 04, 1975  Cooperation in Space
Mar. 15, 1972  Space Shuttle Controversy
Oct. 01, 1969  Mission to Mars: Benefits Vs. Costs
Nov. 13, 1968  Goals in Space
Jun. 29, 1966  Future of Space Exploration
May 08, 1963  Moon Race Controversy
Jun. 27, 1962  Peaceful Use of Outer Space
Nov. 01, 1961  Space Exploration
Dec. 09, 1959  National Space Policy
Feb. 19, 1958  Control of Outer Space
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