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High-Tech Policing

April 21, 2017 • Volume 27, Issue 15
Are new surveillance technologies effective and legal?
By Barbara Mantel

Footnotes

[1] Stacia Glenn, “Burglaries dropping in Tacoma,” The News Tribune, Oct. 18, 2015, http://tinyurl.com/k6fu6cm.

Footnote:
1. Stacia Glenn, “Burglaries dropping in Tacoma,” The News Tribune, Oct. 18, 2015, http://tinyurl.com/k6fu6cm.

[2] “Predictive Policing Today: A Shared Statement of Civil Rights Concerns,” Joint Statement by 17 Civil Rights Groups, Aug. 31, 2016, http://tinyurl.com/k7stf48.

Footnote:
2. “Predictive Policing Today: A Shared Statement of Civil Rights Concerns,” Joint Statement by 17 Civil Rights Groups, Aug. 31, 2016, http://tinyurl.com/k7stf48.

[3] “William Bratton on Tech and the Changing Face of Policing,” Brennan Center for Justice, Sept. 15, 2016, http://tinyurl.com/mqhya3w.

Footnote:
3. “William Bratton on Tech and the Changing Face of Policing,” Brennan Center for Justice, Sept. 15, 2016, http://tinyurl.com/mqhya3w.

[4] “NYPD has used Stingrays more than 1,000 times since 2008,” New York Civil Liberties Union, Feb. 11, 2016, http://tinyurl.com/knsorab.

Footnote:
4. “NYPD has used Stingrays more than 1,000 times since 2008,” New York Civil Liberties Union, Feb. 11, 2016, http://tinyurl.com/knsorab.

[5] Monte Reel, “Secret Cameras Record Baltimore's Every Move From Above,” Bloomberg Businessweek, Aug. 23, 2016, http://tinyurl.com/ln4aoys.

Footnote:
5. Monte Reel, “Secret Cameras Record Baltimore's Every Move From Above,” Bloomberg Businessweek, Aug. 23, 2016, http://tinyurl.com/ln4aoys.

[6] “Baltimore Police Respond To Report Of Secret Aerial Surveillance Program,” CBS Baltimore, Aug. 24, 2017, http://tinyurl.com/kf3d8um.

Footnote:
6. “Baltimore Police Respond To Report Of Secret Aerial Surveillance Program,” CBS Baltimore, Aug. 24, 2017, http://tinyurl.com/kf3d8um.

[7] “Community Control Over Police Surveillance,” American Civil Liberties Union, 2017, http://tinyurl.com/mmbpdyh.

Footnote:
7. “Community Control Over Police Surveillance,” American Civil Liberties Union, 2017, http://tinyurl.com/mmbpdyh.

[8] Rachel Levinson-Waldman, “Hiding in Plain Sight: A Fourth Amendment Framework for Analyzing Government Surveillance in Public,” Emory Law Journal, March 2017, p. 528, http://tinyurl.com/kuxb2tj.

Footnote:
8. Rachel Levinson-Waldman, “Hiding in Plain Sight: A Fourth Amendment Framework for Analyzing Government Surveillance in Public,” Emory Law Journal, March 2017, p. 528, http://tinyurl.com/kuxb2tj.

[9] “Fourth Amendment,” U.S. Constitution, Legal Information Institute, Cornell University Law School, http://tinyurl.com/k4mvu8r.

Footnote:
9. “Fourth Amendment,” U.S. Constitution, Legal Information Institute, Cornell University Law School, http://tinyurl.com/k4mvu8r.

[10] Elizabeth Joh, “The Undue Influence of Surveillance Technology Companies on Policing,” New York University Law Review, forthcoming, Abstract, p. 2, http://tinyurl.com/kkrgzjn.

Footnote:
10. Elizabeth Joh, “The Undue Influence of Surveillance Technology Companies on Policing,” New York University Law Review, forthcoming, Abstract, p. 2, http://tinyurl.com/kkrgzjn.

[11] Ibid.; Cyrus Farivar, “FBI would rather prosecutors drop cases than disclose stingray details,” Ars Technica, April 7, 2015, http://tinyurl.com/mpc7vxe.

Footnote:
11. Ibid.; Cyrus Farivar, “FBI would rather prosecutors drop cases than disclose stingray details,” Ars Technica, April 7, 2015, http://tinyurl.com/mpc7vxe.

[12] “Proposal for Media Sonar: FRESNORTC001,” Media Sonar, Oct. 22, 2015, http://tinyurl.com/kpm7yw4.

Footnote:
12. “Proposal for Media Sonar: FRESNORTC001,” Media Sonar, Oct. 22, 2015, http://tinyurl.com/kpm7yw4.

[13] Brian Bakst and Ryan J. Foley, “For police body cameras, big costs loom in storage,” The Associated Press, Feb. 6, 2015, http://tinyurl.com/lfabkao; “Automated License Plate Readers: Frequently Asked Questions,” Electronic Frontier Foundation, http://tinyurl.com/k6dfvfb; and Michael Grabell, “Judge Orders NYPD to Release Records on X-Ray Vans, ProPublica, Jan. 9, 2015, http://tinyurl.com/n9frgln.

Footnote:
13. Brian Bakst and Ryan J. Foley, “For police body cameras, big costs loom in storage,” The Associated Press, Feb. 6, 2015, http://tinyurl.com/lfabkao; “Automated License Plate Readers: Frequently Asked Questions,” Electronic Frontier Foundation, http://tinyurl.com/k6dfvfb; and Michael Grabell, “Judge Orders NYPD to Release Records on X-Ray Vans, ProPublica, Jan. 9, 2015, http://tinyurl.com/n9frgln.

[14] “Predictive Policing Today: A Shared Statement of Civil Rights Concerns,” op. cit.

Footnote:
14. “Predictive Policing Today: A Shared Statement of Civil Rights Concerns,” op. cit.

[15] Maurice Chammah, “Policing the Future,” The Marshall Project, Feb. 3, 2016, http://tinyurl.com/hyf3ocd.

Footnote:
15. Maurice Chammah, “Policing the Future,” The Marshall Project, Feb. 3, 2016, http://tinyurl.com/hyf3ocd.

[16] David Robinson and Logan Koepke, “Stuck in a Pattern: Early evidence on ‘predictive policing’ and civil rights,” Upturn, August 2016, pp. 3–4, http://tinyurl.com/kdl8e3w.

Footnote:
16. David Robinson and Logan Koepke, “Stuck in a Pattern: Early evidence on ‘predictive policing’ and civil rights,” Upturn, August 2016, pp. 3–4, http://tinyurl.com/kdl8e3w.

[17] David Griffith, “Predictive Policing: Seeing the Future,” Police Magazine, June 30, 2015, http://tinyurl.com/gwllfb7.

Footnote:
17. David Griffith, “Predictive Policing: Seeing the Future,” Police Magazine, June 30, 2015, http://tinyurl.com/gwllfb7.

[18] “Cocoa police use software to thwart crime,” WFTV9 (ABC), Oct. 23, 2015, http://tinyurl.com/l49sg2v.

Footnote:
18. “Cocoa police use software to thwart crime,” WFTV9 (ABC), Oct. 23, 2015, http://tinyurl.com/l49sg2v.

[19] Priscilla Hunt et al., “Evaluation of the Shreveport Predictive Policing Experiment,” RAND Corp., 2014, pp. xiii, 4, http://tinyurl.com/zm5xtf4.

Footnote:
19. Priscilla Hunt et al., “Evaluation of the Shreveport Predictive Policing Experiment,” RAND Corp., 2014, pp. xiii, 4, http://tinyurl.com/zm5xtf4.

[20] Emily Thomas, “Why Oakland Police Turned Down Predictive Policing,” Motherboard, Dec. 28, 2016, http://tinyurl.com/nxbaqsd; Hunt et al., ibid., p. xiii.

Footnote:
20. Emily Thomas, “Why Oakland Police Turned Down Predictive Policing,” Motherboard, Dec. 28, 2016, http://tinyurl.com/nxbaqsd; Hunt et al., ibid., p. xiii.

[21] Illinois v. Wardlow, 528 U.S. 119, 124 (2000), https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/528/119/case.html.

Footnote:
21. Illinois v. Wardlow, 528 U.S. 119, 124 (2000), https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/528/119/case.html.

[22] “Justice Department Announces $20 Million in Funding to Support Body-Worn Camera Pilot Program,” U.S. Department of Justice, May 1, 2015, http://tinyurl.com/nyqxec2.

Footnote:
22. “Justice Department Announces $20 Million in Funding to Support Body-Worn Camera Pilot Program,” U.S. Department of Justice, May 1, 2015, http://tinyurl.com/nyqxec2.

[23] Colleen Long, “NYPD plans 23,000 body cams. Number on streets now: 0,” The Associated Press, Feb. 11, 2017, http://tinyurl.com/ktvbedp.

Footnote:
23. Colleen Long, “NYPD plans 23,000 body cams. Number on streets now: 0,” The Associated Press, Feb. 11, 2017, http://tinyurl.com/ktvbedp.

[24] Cynthia Lum et al., “Existing and Ongoing Body Worn Camera Research: Knowledge Gaps and Opportunities,” George Mason University, 2015, pp. 6–7, http://tinyurl.com/kxny5ge.

Footnote:
24. Cynthia Lum et al., “Existing and Ongoing Body Worn Camera Research: Knowledge Gaps and Opportunities,” George Mason University, 2015, pp. 6–7, http://tinyurl.com/kxny5ge.

[25] Barak Ariel et al., “Report: increases in police use of force in the presence of body-worn cameras are driven by officer discretion: a protocol-based subgroup analysis of ten randomized experiments,” Journal of Experimental Criminology, May 17, 2016, p. 461, http://tinyurl.com/m2euptl.

Footnote:
25. Barak Ariel et al., “Report: increases in police use of force in the presence of body-worn cameras are driven by officer discretion: a protocol-based subgroup analysis of ten randomized experiments,” Journal of Experimental Criminology, May 17, 2016, p. 461, http://tinyurl.com/m2euptl.

[26] “Implementing a Body-Worn Camera Program: Recommendations and Lessons Learned,” U.S. Department of Justice, Police Executive Research Forum, 2014, p. 13, http://tinyurl.com/lxdg7ej.

Footnote:
26. “Implementing a Body-Worn Camera Program: Recommendations and Lessons Learned,” U.S. Department of Justice, Police Executive Research Forum, 2014, p. 13, http://tinyurl.com/lxdg7ej.

[27] Ibid.

Footnote:
27. Ibid.

[28] “A model act for regulating the use of wearable body cameras by law enforcement,” American Civil Liberties Union, January 2017, http://tinyurl.com/m5q5bqg.

Footnote:
28. “A model act for regulating the use of wearable body cameras by law enforcement,” American Civil Liberties Union, January 2017, http://tinyurl.com/m5q5bqg.

[29] “Implementing a Body-Worn Camera Program: Recommendations and Lessons Learned,” op. cit.

Footnote:
29. “Implementing a Body-Worn Camera Program: Recommendations and Lessons Learned,” op. cit.

[30] Jessica Lipscomb, “Dozens of Miami Cops Aren't Uploading Their Body Cam Footage,” Miami New Times, Dec. 15, 2016, http://tinyurl.com/zlq4hgy.

Footnote:
30. Jessica Lipscomb, “Dozens of Miami Cops Aren't Uploading Their Body Cam Footage,” Miami New Times, Dec. 15, 2016, http://tinyurl.com/zlq4hgy.

[31] KiDeuk Kim, Ashlin Oglesby-Neal and Edward Mohr, “2016 Law Enforcement Use of Social Media Survey,” International Association of Chiefs of Police and the Urban Institute, February 2017, p. 3, http://tinyurl.com/kd2twc3.

Footnote:
31. KiDeuk Kim, Ashlin Oglesby-Neal and Edward Mohr, “2016 Law Enforcement Use of Social Media Survey,” International Association of Chiefs of Police and the Urban Institute, February 2017, p. 3, http://tinyurl.com/kd2twc3.

[32] “Developer Policies to Protect People's Voices on Twitter,” Twitter, Nov. 22, 2016, http://tinyurl.com/l2yv2nv; “Facebook and Privacy,” Facebook, March 13, 2017, http://tinyurl.com/mtcmocm.

Footnote:
32. “Developer Policies to Protect People's Voices on Twitter,” Twitter, Nov. 22, 2016, http://tinyurl.com/l2yv2nv; “Facebook and Privacy,” Facebook, March 13, 2017, http://tinyurl.com/mtcmocm.

[33] Michelle McQuigge, “Experts divided on social media surveillance after Twitter pulls plug on Media Sonar,” The Canadian Press, Jan. 5, 2017, http://tinyurl.com/lcp8jga.

Footnote:
33. Michelle McQuigge, “Experts divided on social media surveillance after Twitter pulls plug on Media Sonar,” The Canadian Press, Jan. 5, 2017, http://tinyurl.com/lcp8jga.

[34] Nicole Ozer, “Police use of social media surveillance software is escalating, and activists are in the digital crosshairs,” ACLU of Northern California, Sept. 22, 2016, http://tinyurl.com/n5z4p7t.

Footnote:
34. Nicole Ozer, “Police use of social media surveillance software is escalating, and activists are in the digital crosshairs,” ACLU of Northern California, Sept. 22, 2016, http://tinyurl.com/n5z4p7t.

[35] “Usage Overview,” Geofeedia, http://tinyurl.com/myrojyh.

Footnote:
35. “Usage Overview,” Geofeedia, http://tinyurl.com/myrojyh.

[36] Craig Timberg and Elizabeth Dwoskin, “Facebook, Twitter and Instagram sent feeds that helped police track minorities in Ferguson and Baltimore, report says,” The Washington Post, Oct. 11, 2016, http://tinyurl.com/l7hjqto.

Footnote:
36. Craig Timberg and Elizabeth Dwoskin, “Facebook, Twitter and Instagram sent feeds that helped police track minorities in Ferguson and Baltimore, report says,” The Washington Post, Oct. 11, 2016, http://tinyurl.com/l7hjqto.

[37] “Keywords List,” Media Sonar, http://tinyurl.com/n38uhff.

Footnote:
37. “Keywords List,” Media Sonar, http://tinyurl.com/n38uhff.

[38] Ozer, op. cit.

Footnote:
38. Ozer, op. cit.

[39] Radley Balko, Rise of the Warrior Cop: The Militarization of America's Police Forces (2013), pp. 28–29.

Footnote:
39. Radley Balko, Rise of the Warrior Cop: The Militarization of America's Police Forces (2013), pp. 28–29.

[40] Ibid., pp. 30–31.

Footnote:
40. Ibid., pp. 30–31.

[41] Charles Bennett, “Legendary Lawman August Vollmer,” officer.com, May 27, 2010, http://tinyurl.com/mj2k2pl.

Footnote:
41. Charles Bennett, “Legendary Lawman August Vollmer,” officer.com, May 27, 2010, http://tinyurl.com/mj2k2pl.

[42] Balko, op. cit., p. 32.

Footnote:
42. Balko, op. cit., p. 32.

[43] Christian Parenti, The Soft Cage: Surveillance in America From Slavery to The War on Terror (2003), pp. 58–59.

Footnote:
43. Christian Parenti, The Soft Cage: Surveillance in America From Slavery to The War on Terror (2003), pp. 58–59.

[44] Barry Friedman, Unwarranted: Policing Without Permission (2017), p. 39.

Footnote:
44. Barry Friedman, Unwarranted: Policing Without Permission (2017), p. 39.

[45] Ibid., p. 40. Crime statistics are from FBI Uniform Crime Reports, Table Ec1-10 — Estimated crimes known to police, by type of offense: 1960–1997, in Susan Carter, ed., Historical Statistics of the United States Millennial Edition Online (2009), http://tinyurl.com/54vmz2.

Footnote:
45. Ibid., p. 40. Crime statistics are from FBI Uniform Crime Reports, Table Ec1-10 — Estimated crimes known to police, by type of offense: 1960–1997, in Susan Carter, ed., Historical Statistics of the United States Millennial Edition Online (2009), http://tinyurl.com/54vmz2.

[46] For more, see Sarah Glazer, “Sentencing Reform,” CQ Researcher, Jan. 10, 2014, pp. 25–48.

Footnote:
46. For more, see Sarah Glazer, “Sentencing Reform,” CQ Researcher, Jan. 10, 2014, pp. 25–48.

[47] Friedman, op. cit., p. 42; Nancy G. La Vigne et al., “Using Public Surveillance Systems for Crime Control and Prevention: A Practical Guide for Law Enforcement and Their Municipal Partners,” Urban Institute, Sept. 19, 2011, p. v, http://tinyurl.com/mzn7jf7.

Footnote:
47. Friedman, op. cit., p. 42; Nancy G. La Vigne et al., “Using Public Surveillance Systems for Crime Control and Prevention: A Practical Guide for Law Enforcement and Their Municipal Partners,” Urban Institute, Sept. 19, 2011, p. v, http://tinyurl.com/mzn7jf7.

[48] Friedman, op. cit., p. 44.

Footnote:
48. Friedman, op. cit., p. 44.

[49] “David Floyd, Lalit Clarkson, Deon Dennis, and David Ourlicht v. The City of New York,” U.S. District Court Southern District of New York, Aug. 12, 2013, p. 181, http://tinyurl.com/ks85b77.

Footnote:
49. “David Floyd, Lalit Clarkson, Deon Dennis, and David Ourlicht v. The City of New York,” U.S. District Court Southern District of New York, Aug. 12, 2013, p. 181, http://tinyurl.com/ks85b77.

[50] La Vigne, op. cit.

Footnote:
50. La Vigne, op. cit.

[51] Parenti, op. cit., pp. 116, 109.

Footnote:
51. Parenti, op. cit., pp. 116, 109.

[52] Alexandra Mateescu, Alex Rosenblat and Danah Boyd, “Police Body-Worn Cameras,” Data & Research Institute, February 2015, p. 4, http://tinyurl.com/l6wh77l.

Footnote:
52. Alexandra Mateescu, Alex Rosenblat and Danah Boyd, “Police Body-Worn Cameras,” Data & Research Institute, February 2015, p. 4, http://tinyurl.com/l6wh77l.

[53] Dina Demetrius, “Meet the first U.S. police department to deploy body cameras,” Al Jazeera America, Dec. 17, 2014, http://tinyurl.com/nrmchje.

Footnote:
53. Dina Demetrius, “Meet the first U.S. police department to deploy body cameras,” Al Jazeera America, Dec. 17, 2014, http://tinyurl.com/nrmchje.

[54] “Self-Awareness to Being Watched and Socially-Desirable Behavior: A Field Experiment on the Effect of Body-Worn Cameras on Police Use-of-Force,” Bureau of Justice Assistance, U.S. Department of Justice, pp. 4, 8, http://tinyurl.com/kyf2x72.

Footnote:
54. “Self-Awareness to Being Watched and Socially-Desirable Behavior: A Field Experiment on the Effect of Body-Worn Cameras on Police Use-of-Force,” Bureau of Justice Assistance, U.S. Department of Justice, pp. 4, 8, http://tinyurl.com/kyf2x72.

[55] “Implementing a Body-Worn Camera Program: Recommendations and Lessons Learned,” Police Executive Research Forum and U.S. Department of Justice, 2014, p. 2, http://tinyurl.com/lxdg7ej.

Footnote:
55. “Implementing a Body-Worn Camera Program: Recommendations and Lessons Learned,” Police Executive Research Forum and U.S. Department of Justice, 2014, p. 2, http://tinyurl.com/lxdg7ej.

[56] “What Happened in Ferguson?” The New York Times, Aug. 10, 2015, http://tinyurl.com/htrsxvj.

Footnote:
56. “What Happened in Ferguson?” The New York Times, Aug. 10, 2015, http://tinyurl.com/htrsxvj.

[57] Demetrius, op. cit.

Footnote:
57. Demetrius, op. cit.

[58] “Major Cities Chiefs and Major County Sheriffs: Technology Needs — Body Worn Cameras” The Lafayette Group, December 2015, p. 2, http://tinyurl.com/mv4ym6p.

Footnote:
58. “Major Cities Chiefs and Major County Sheriffs: Technology Needs — Body Worn Cameras” The Lafayette Group, December 2015, p. 2, http://tinyurl.com/mv4ym6p.

[59] “The Fourth Amendment,” Legal Information Institute, Cornell University Law School, http://tinyurl.com/k4mvu8r.

Footnote:
59. “The Fourth Amendment,” Legal Information Institute, Cornell University Law School, http://tinyurl.com/k4mvu8r.

[60] Friedman, op. cit., p. 213.

Footnote:
60. Friedman, op. cit., p. 213.

[61] Levinson-Waldman, op. cit., p. 532, http://tinyurl.com/kuxb2tj.

Footnote:
61. Levinson-Waldman, op. cit., p. 532, http://tinyurl.com/kuxb2tj.

[62] Ibid., p. 533.

Footnote:
62. Ibid., p. 533.

[63] Friedman, op. cit., p. 222.

Footnote:
63. Friedman, op. cit., p. 222.

[64] Ibid., p. 223.

Footnote:
64. Ibid., p. 223.

[65] Ibid.

Footnote:
65. Ibid.

[66] Levinson-Waldman, op. cit., pp. 539, 544, 546, 547.

Footnote:
66. Levinson-Waldman, op. cit., pp. 539, 544, 546, 547.

[67] Joh, op. cit., p. 28.

Footnote:
67. Joh, op. cit., p. 28.

[68] “An Act To Promote Transparency with Respect to Surveillance Technology,” Maine Legislature, p. 3, http://tinyurl.com/mzs329t; “Actions for LD 823,” Maine Legislature, http://tinyurl.com/k6kumnm.

Footnote:
68. “An Act To Promote Transparency with Respect to Surveillance Technology,” Maine Legislature, p. 3, http://tinyurl.com/mzs329t; “Actions for LD 823,” Maine Legislature, http://tinyurl.com/k6kumnm.

[69] “California Senate Bill 21,” http://tinyurl.com/z9tv448.

Footnote:
69. “California Senate Bill 21,” http://tinyurl.com/z9tv448.

[70] “California, NYC Lawmakers Seek to Reveal Police Surveillance,” Communications Daily, March 15, 2017, http://tinyurl.com/kacnksu.

Footnote:
70. “California, NYC Lawmakers Seek to Reveal Police Surveillance,” Communications Daily, March 15, 2017, http://tinyurl.com/kacnksu.

[71] Carrie Snurr, “Legislation creates task force to study surveillance tactics,” The Associated Press, The Washington Post, April 7, 2017, http://tinyurl.com/m9g9jzz.

Footnote:
71. Carrie Snurr, “Legislation creates task force to study surveillance tactics,” The Associated Press, The Washington Post, April 7, 2017, http://tinyurl.com/m9g9jzz.

[72] “Creating comprehensive reporting and oversight of NYPD surveillance technologies,” The New York City Council, Introduced March 1, 2017, http://tinyurl.com/l6m4cdy.

Footnote:
72. “Creating comprehensive reporting and oversight of NYPD surveillance technologies,” The New York City Council, Introduced March 1, 2017, http://tinyurl.com/l6m4cdy.

[73] “Public Oversight of Surveillance Technology (POST) Act: Fact Sheet,” Brennan Center for Justice, http://tinyurl.com/m2ulvy4.

Footnote:
73. “Public Oversight of Surveillance Technology (POST) Act: Fact Sheet,” Brennan Center for Justice, http://tinyurl.com/m2ulvy4.

[74] “Creating comprehensive reporting and oversight of NYPD surveillance technologies,” op. cit.

Footnote:
74. “Creating comprehensive reporting and oversight of NYPD surveillance technologies,” op. cit.

[75] Noah Hurowitz, “NYPD Blasts Surveillance Transparency Bill as a Boon to ‘Terrorists,’” DNAinfo, March 2, 2017, http://tinyurl.com/l7vluna.

Footnote:
75. Noah Hurowitz, “NYPD Blasts Surveillance Transparency Bill as a Boon to ‘Terrorists,’” DNAinfo, March 2, 2017, http://tinyurl.com/l7vluna.

[76] Shahid Buttar, “A California County Breaks New Ground for Surveillance Transparency,” Electronic Frontier Foundation, June 15, 2016, http://tinyurl.com/hhq5ycl.

Footnote:
76. Shahid Buttar, “A California County Breaks New Ground for Surveillance Transparency,” Electronic Frontier Foundation, June 15, 2016, http://tinyurl.com/hhq5ycl.

[77] “Automated license plate readers: State statutes regulating their use,” National Conference of State Legislatures, Feb. 27, 2017, http://tinyurl.com/lxbxobc.

Footnote:
77. “Automated license plate readers: State statutes regulating their use,” National Conference of State Legislatures, Feb. 27, 2017, http://tinyurl.com/lxbxobc.

[78] “Body-worn cameras interactive graphic,” National Conference of State Legislatures, Aug. 30, 2016, http://tinyurl.com/kjwnx89.

Footnote:
78. “Body-worn cameras interactive graphic,” National Conference of State Legislatures, Aug. 30, 2016, http://tinyurl.com/kjwnx89.

[79] Nancy G. La Vigne and Margaret Ulle, “Police camera policies: what's in and what's out,” Urban Institute, Jan. 12, 2017, http://tinyurl.com/lpy8xea.

Footnote:
79. Nancy G. La Vigne and Margaret Ulle, “Police camera policies: what's in and what's out,” Urban Institute, Jan. 12, 2017, http://tinyurl.com/lpy8xea.

[80] Lum et al., op. cit.; Long, op. cit.

Footnote:
80. Lum et al., op. cit.; Long, op. cit.

[81] Ozer, op. cit.

Footnote:
81. Ozer, op. cit.

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Document APA Citation — See Alternate Citation Style
Mantel, B. (2017, April 21). High-tech policing. CQ researcher, 27, 337-360. Retrieved from http://library.cqpress.com/
Document ID: cqresrre2017042108
Document URL: http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/cqresrre2017042108
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Apr. 21, 2017  High-Tech Policing
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Jun. 07, 2016  Crime and Police Conduct
Dec. 12, 2014  Police Tactics
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Oct. 14, 2011  Eyewitness Testimony
May 06, 2011  Business Ethics
Mar. 17, 2000  Policing the Police
Nov. 24, 1995  Police Corruption
Sep. 06, 1991  Police Brutality
Apr. 19, 1974  Police Innovation
Sep. 02, 1966  Police Reforms
Jan. 12, 1954  Federal Police Activity
Apr. 01, 1932  Proposed Expansions of Federal Police Activity
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