Americans have always been leaders of technological innovation. The good news today is that more students are taking higher-level math and science than ever. But their performance on international math and science tests has been lackluster, raising questions about their ability to face the unforeseen challenges of a technological age. Educators agree that students need more math and science, but they disagree vociferously about how the two subjects should be taught. The new No Child Left Behind Act requires school systems to develop educational standards for core subjects and to test how well students are meeting those standards. Meanwhile, attracting qualified teachers remains a critical problem throughout the nation.