Negro Jobs and Education

January 23, 1963

Report Outline
Improvement in Job Openings for Negroes
Obstacles to Employment of Negroes
Progress Toward Educational Equality
Action to Foster Equal Opportunities

Improvement in Job Openings for Negroes

The Negro, long America's most disadvantaged citizen, has taken giant steps toward equality in the past two decades. In 1963, as civil rights organizations celebrate the centennial of the Emancipation Proclamation, the Negro no longer stands completely outside the mainstream of American life. One area in which he has chalked up considerable progress is that of employment. Gains made during World War II built a base for further progress; in the past 20 years the median annual income of Negro families has increased six times, compared to a quadrupling of white family income.

Instrumental in this progress has been the gradual rise of educational standards among Negroes, whether in integrated or segregated schools. But also of great importance have been federal and state efforts to broaden opportunities for Negroes, and a growing militancy on the part of Negroes themselves. This militancy has already contributed markedly to bringing closer the attainment of both educational and employment goals.

President Kennedy, six weeks after taking office, “dedicated” his administration to “the cause of equal opportunity in employment.” An executive order aimed to bring more effective action to eliminate racial discrimination in the employment and promotion policies of federal agencies and of holders of government contracts was issued March 6, 1961. Since then, growth of Negro employment and movement of Negroes into better-paying jobs in the federal service have been pronounced, while substantial progress of the same sort has been made in a segment of American industry. The policy of opening up new job opportunities for Negroes is not based solely on concern for equal rights. Vice President Johnson, head of the President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity, asserted on Jan. 6 that “Discrimination by Americans against fellow Americans costs more each year than the total of our budget for the exploration of outer space.”

ISSUE TRACKER for Related Reports
African Americans and the Civil Rights Movement
Nov. 15, 1985  Black America Long March for Equality
Aug. 12, 1983  Black Political Power
Jan. 18, 1980  Black Leadership Question
Aug. 15, 1973  Black Americans, 1963–1973
Nov. 26, 1969  Racial Discrimination in Craft Unions
Sep. 11, 1968  Black Pride
Feb. 21, 1968  Negro Power Struggle
Mar. 08, 1967  Negroes in the Economy
Jan. 19, 1966  Changing Southern Politics
Oct. 27, 1965  Negroes in the North
Jul. 21, 1965  Negro Revolution: Next Steps
Oct. 14, 1964  Negro Voting
Sep. 21, 1964  Negroes and the Police
Jul. 03, 1963  Right of Access to Public Accommodations
Jan. 23, 1963  Negro Jobs and Education
Mar. 25, 1960  Violence and Non-Violence in Race Relations
Aug. 05, 1959  Negro Employment
Apr. 18, 1956  Racial Issues in National Politics
Apr. 18, 1951  Progress in Race Relations
Dec. 17, 1948  Discrimination in Employment
Jan. 10, 1947  Federal Protection of Civil Liberties
Aug. 25, 1944  The Negro Vote
Jul. 01, 1942  Racial Discrimination and the War Effort
Mar. 25, 1939  Civil and Social Rights of the Negro
Jul. 22, 1927  Disenfranchisement of the Negro in the South
BROWSE RELATED TOPICS:
Civil Rights: African Americans
Diversity Issues
Equal Employment Opportunity & Discrimination
Segregation and Desegregation