Action on Roosevelt Program at Special Session
The Special Session of the 73rd Congress, which began on March 9 with enactment of the emergency banking act, came to a close on the morning of June 16, 1933, shortly after the passage by both houses of the national industrial recovery bill and final approval of a $3,610,000,000 measure to finance the new undertakings initiated during the session. The closing hours were marked by a sharp contest between the President and the Senate over the limitations to be imposed upon the authority previously granted to effect reductions in veterans' compensation. The Senate capitulated just before adjournment, approving, by a margin of nine votes, an administration compromise it had previously rejected. A last communication from the President thanked the Congress for “a more sincere and wholehearted cooperation” between the legislative and executive branches—which “in most cases transcended party lines”—than had been witnessed in many years.
Almost-the entire time of the special session was taken up with emergency measures. The only outstanding pieces of permanent legislation upon which final action was taken were the administration's securities bill, the Tennessee Valley Authority bill, the Wagner employment exchange bill, and the Glass-Steagall bank reform bill. The 73rd Congress—under the terms of the new 20th amendment to the Constitution—will not meet again until January 3, 1934, unless called into a second special session at an earlier date.
The dates on which action was taken on 15 major proposals for legislation submitted by President Roosevelt during the special session are shown below.
Many of the measures enacted in response to requests from the President were limited in their operation to one or two years. Most of the new agencies created to administer these measures, including not only the new government-owned corporations but also such agencies as the national industrial recovery board, the agricultural adjustment administration, the emergency relief administration, and the employment service, were specifically exempted from civil service rules, either by action of the House or in the text of bills transmitted by the administration.
||Approved by the House
||Approved by the Senate
||Approved by the President|
|Legalization of beer
|Direct unemployment relief
|Farm mortgage relief
|Tennessee Valley Authority
|Loans to home owners
|Control of oil industry
|Gold clause invalidation