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Japanese-American Relations

October 12, 1932

Report Outline
Stimonson's Non-Recognition Policy and the Kellogg Pact
The United States and the Rise of Modern Japan
Changing Relations and Problem of Japanese Immigration
Japanese and American Interests in the Pacific
The United States and Japan's Manchurian Policy

Stimonson's Non-Recognition Policy and the Kellogg Pact

Japan's Military Activities in Manchuria, in apparent defiance of obligations assumed under the Nine-Power treaty of 1922 and the Kellogg peace pact, as well as under the Covenant of the League of Nations, led to pronouncement by Secretary of State Stimson on January 7, 1932, of a doctrine of broad significance in American foreign policy. Through the medium of identic notes to China and Japan, the United States Government announced that it would not recognize any agreement entered into by those governments which might impair the treaty rights of the United States or its citizens in China, and that it did not intend to “recognize any situation, treaty or agreement which may be brought about by means contrary to the covenants and obligations of the Pact of Paris.” Regarded as a precedent likely to be followed by the American government in any future violations of the Kellogg anti-war treaty, this doctrine assumes great importance as in effect providing a means of implementing that pact. If generally adhered to, it would furnish a method, not of preventing aggression, but of depriving aggressor nations in large measure of the fruita of conquest.

In an address at Philadelphia, October 1, 1932, Secretary Stimson said the success of the policy announced last January could be measured by the “unanimous alignment of all the neutral governments and substantially all the public opinion of the world behind the so-called ‘non-recognition’ doctrine.” The Assembly of the League of Nations on March 11, 1932, had adopted a resolution repeating in almost identical language the principle previously enunciated at Washington. This principle, while not entirely new in American foreign policy, was never before given such wide application or accorded such wide recognition.

American Leadership in Far Eastern Diplomacy

The Stimson doctrine is only the latest example of American leadership in the relations of western nations with the countries of the Orient. It was Secretary of State Hay who at the end of the last century propounded the famous Open Door policy in China, which has ever since been insisted upon by the United States and which was formally incorporated in the Nine-Power treaty of 1922. It was an American naval commander, Commodore Perry, who in 1854 brought about the opening of Japan to foreign trade and intercourse after a period of seclusion which had lasted more than 200 years. American citizens played a prominent part in the reorganization of Japanese institutions which took place in the years following restoration of the Emperor in 1867. Negotiations for settlement of the differences which had brought Japan and Russia to war in 1904 and 1905 were forwarded by the initiative of President Roosevelt, the treaty which ended that conflict being drawn up and signed at Portsmouth, New Hampshire.

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BROWSE RELATED TOPICS:
Diplomacy and Diplomats
Immigration and Naturalization
Regional Political Affairs: East Asia and the Pacific
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